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This is an experimental technology
Check the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production.

The :host() CSS pseudo-class function selects the shadow host of the shadow DOM containing the CSS it is used inside (so you can select a custom element from inside its shadow DOM) — but only if the selector given as the function's parameter matches the shadow host.

The most obvious use of this is to put a class name only on certain custom element instances, and then include the relevant class selector as the function argument. You can't use this with a descendant selector expression to select only instances of the custom element that are inside a particular ancestor. That's the job of :host-context().

Note: This has no effect when used outside a shadow DOM.

/* Selects a shadow root host, only if it is
   matched by the selector argument */ 
:host(.special-custom-element) {
  font-weight: bold;
}

Syntax

:host( <compound-selector-list> )

where
<compound-selector-list> = <compound-selector>#

where
<compound-selector> = [ <type-selector>? <subclass-selector>* [ <pseudo-element-selector> <pseudo-class-selector>* ]* ]!

where
<type-selector> = <wq-name> | <ns-prefix>? '*'
<subclass-selector> = <id-selector> | <class-selector> | <attribute-selector> | <pseudo-class-selector>
<pseudo-element-selector> = ':' <pseudo-class-selector>
<pseudo-class-selector> = ':' <ident-token> | ':' <function-token> <any-value> ')'

where
<wq-name> = <ns-prefix>? <ident-token>
<ns-prefix> = [ <ident-token> | '*' ]? |
<id-selector> = <hash-token>
<class-selector> = '.' <ident-token>
<attribute-selector> = '[' <wq-name> ']' | '[' <wq-name> <attr-matcher> [ <string-token> | <ident-token> ] <attr-modifier>? ']'

where
<attr-matcher> = [ '~' | | | '^' | '$' | '*' ]? '='
<attr-modifier> = i

Examples

The following snippets are taken from our host-selectors example (see it live also).

In this example we have a simple custom element — <context-span> — that you can wrap around text:

<h1>Host selectors <a href="#"><context-span>example</context-span></a></h1>

Inside the element's constructor, we create style and span elements, fill the span with the content of the custom element, and fill the style element with some CSS rules:

let style = document.createElement('style');
let span = document.createElement('span');
span.textContent = this.textContent;

const shadowRoot = this.attachShadow({mode: 'open'});
shadowRoot.appendChild(style);
shadowRoot.appendChild(span);

style.textContent = 'span:hover { text-decoration: underline; }' +
                    ':host-context(h1) { font-style: italic; }' +
                    ':host-context(h1):after { content: " - no links in headers!" }' +
                    ':host-context(article, aside) { color: gray; }' +
                    ':host(.footer) { color : red; }' +
                    ':host { background: rgba(0,0,0,0.1); padding: 2px 5px; }';

The :host(.footer) { color : red; } rule styles all instances of the <context-span> element (the shadow host in this instance) in the document that have the footer class set on them — we've used it to give instances of the element inside the <footer> a special color.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Scoping Module Level 1
The definition of ':host()' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
Basic support
Experimental
Chrome Full support YesEdge No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes Under consideration
Firefox Full support 63
Full support 63
No support 61 — 65
Disabled
Disabled From version 61 until version 65 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.webcomponents.shadowdom.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera Full support YesSafari No support NoWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes Under consideration
Firefox Android Full support 63
Full support 63
No support 61 — 65
Disabled
Disabled From version 61 until version 65 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.webcomponents.shadowdom.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.

See also

ドキュメントのタグと貢献者

このページの貢献者: mfluehr, jpmedley, jaller94, chrisdavidmills
最終更新者: mfluehr,