This article offers suggestions and tips to improve your WebGL content. Following these suggestions can help improve your web application's compatibility with more devices and browsers, as well as increase its performance.
Things to avoid
- Always make sure that your application runs without generating any WebGL errors, as returned by
- You should never use
#ifdef GL_ESin your WebGL shaders; although some early examples used this, it's not necessary, since this condition is always true in WebGL shaders.
highpprecision in fragment shaders will prevent your content from working on some older mobile hardware. You can use
mediumpinstead, but be aware that this often results in corrupted rendering due to lack of precision on most mobile devices, and the corruption is not going to be visible on a typical desktop computer. In general, only using
highpin both vertex and fragment shaders is safer unless shaders are thoroughly tested on a variety of platforms. Starting in Firefox 11, the WebGL
getShaderPrecisionFormat()function is implemented, allowing you to check if
highpprecision is supported, and more generally letting you query the actual precision of all supported precision qualifiers.
Things to keep in mind
- Some WebGL capabilities depend on the client. Before relying on them, you should use the WebGL
getParameter()function to determine what values are supported on the client. For example, the maximum size of a 2D texture is given by
webgl.getParameter(webgl.MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE). Starting in Firefox 10, the
webgl.min_capability_modepreference allows simulating minimal values for these capabilities, to test portability.
- In particular, note that usage of textures in vertex shaders is only possible if
webgl.getParameter(webgl.MAX_VERTEX_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS)is greater than zero. Typically, this fails on current mobile hardware.
- The availability of most WebGL extensions depends on the client. When using WebGL extensions, if possible, try to make them optional by gracefully adapting to the case there they are not supported. Starting in Firefox 10, the
webgl.disable-extensionspreference allows simulating the absence of all extensions, to test portability.
- Rendering to a floating-point texture may not be supported, even if the
OES_texture_floatextension is supported. Typically, this fails on current mobile hardware. To check if this is supported, you have to call the WebGL
- Rendering to a canvas can be done at a different resolution than the style sheet will eventually force the canvas to appear at. If struggling with performance you should consider rendering to a low resolution WebGL context and using CSS to upscale its canvas to the size you intend.
General performance tips
- Anything that requires syncing the CPU and GPU sides is potentially very slow, so if possible you should try to avoid doing that in your main rendering loops. This includes the following WebGL calls:
finish(). WebGL getter calls such as
- Fewer, larger draw operations will improve performance. If you have 1000 sprites to paint, try to do it as a single
drawElements()call. You can draw degenerate (flat) triangles if you need to draw discontinuous objects as a single
- Fewer state changes will also improve performance. In particular, if you can pack multiple images into a single texture and select them by using the appropriate texture coordinates, that can help you do fewer texture binding changes, which improves performance.
- In some rare cases, packing greyscale textures which belong together into the color channels of a single texture might help.
- Smaller textures perform better than larger ones. For this reason, mipmapping can be a performance win.
- Simpler shaders perform better than complex ones. In particular, if you can remove an
ifstatement from a shader, that will make it run faster. Division and math functions like
log()should be considered expensive too.
- Always have vertex attrib 0 array enabled. If you draw with vertex attrib 0 array disabled, you will force the browser to do complicated emulation when running on desktop OpenGL (e.g. on Mac OSX). This is because in desktop OpenGL, nothing gets drawn if vertex attrib 0 is not array-enabled. You can use
bindAttribLocation()to force a vertex attribute to use location
0, and use
enableVertexAttribArray()to make it array-enabled.