<table>

Summary

The HTML Table Element (<table>) represents data in two dimensions or more.

Note: Prior to the creation of CSS, HTML <table> elements were often used as a method for page layout. This usage has been discouraged since HTML 4, and the <table> element should not be used for layout purposes.

Usage context

Content categories Flow content
Permitted content
In this order:
  • an optional <caption> element,
  • zero or more <colgroup> elements,
  • an optional <thead> element,
  • one of the two alternatives:
    • one <tfoot> element, followed by:
      • zero or more <tbody> elements,
      • or one or more <tr> elements,
    • a second alternative followed by an optional <tfoot> element:
      • either zero or more <tbody> elements,
      • or one or more <tr> elements
Tag omission None, both the start tag and the end tag are mandatory
Permitted parent elements Any element that accepts flow content
Normative document HTML5, section 4.9.1 (HTML4.01, section 11.2.1)

Attributes

This element includes the global attributes.

align
 This enumerated attribute indicates how the table must be aligned in regard of the containing document. It may have the following values:
  • left, meaning that the table is to be displayed to the left of the document;
  • center, meaning that the table is to be displayed centered in the document;
  • right, meaning that the table is to be displayed to the right of the document.
Note: 
  • Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the <table> element should be styled using CSS. To give a similar effect than the align attribute, the CSS properties "text-align" and "vertical-align" should be used.
  • Prior to Firefox 4, Firefox also supported, in quirks mode only, the values middle, absmiddle, and abscenter as synonyms of center
bgcolor
This attribute defines the background color of the table and its content. It is one of the 6-digit hexadecimal code as defined in sRGB, prefixed by a '#'. One of the sixteen predefined color strings may be used:
  black = "#000000"   green = "#008000"
  silver = "#C0C0C0"   lime = "#00FF00"
  gray = "#808080"   olive = "#808000"
  white = "#FFFFFF"   yellow = "#FFFF00"
  maroon = "#800000"   navy = "#000080"
  red = "#FF0000"   blue = "#0000FF"
  purple = "#800080"   teal = "#008080"
  fuchsia = "#FF00FF"   aqua = "#00FFFF"
Usage note: Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the <table> element should be styled using CSS. To give a similar effect than the bgcolor attribute, the CSS property background-color should be used.
border
This integer attribute defines, in pixels, the size of the frame surrounding the table. If set to 0, it implies that the frame attribute is set to void.
Usage note: Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the <table> element should be styled using CSS. To give a similar effect than the border attribute, the CSS properties border, border-color, border-width and border-style should be used.
cellpadding
This attribute defines the space between the content of a cell and the border, displayed or not, of it. If it is a pixel length, this pixel-sized space will be applied on all four sides; if it is a percentage length, the content will be centered and the total vertical space (top and bottom) will represent this percentage. The same is true for the total horizontal space (left and right).
Usage note: Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the <table> element should be styled using CSS. To give a similar effect than the border attribute, use the CSS property border-collapse with the value collapse on the  <table> element itself, and the property padding on the <td>.
cellspacing
This attribute defines the size, in percentage or in pixels, of the space between two cells (both horizontally and vertically), between the top of the table and the cells of the first row, the left of the table and the first column, the right of the table and the last column and the bottom of the table and the last row.
Usage note: Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the <table> element should be styled using CSS. To give a similar effect than the border attribute, use the CSS property border-collapse with the value collapse on the  <table> element itself, and the property margin on the <td> element.
frame
This enumerated attribute defines which side of the frame surrounding the table must be displayed. It may have the following values:
  above   below
  hsides   vsides
  lhs   rhs
  border   box
  void
Usage note: Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the <table> element should be styled using CSS. To give a similar effect than the frame attribute, use the CSS properties border-style and border-width.
rules
This enumerated attribute defines where rules, i.e. lines, should appear in a table. It can have the following values:
  • none, which indicates the no rules will be displayed; it is the default value;
  • groups, which will make the rules to be displayed between row groups (defined by the <thead>, <tbody> and <tfoot> elements) and between column groups (defined by the <col> and <colgroup> elements) only;
  • rows, which will make the rules to be displayed between rows;
  • columns, which will make the rules to be displayed between columns;
  • all, which wil make the rules to be displayed between rows and columns.
Note:
  • The styling of the rules is browser-dependant and cannot be modified.
  • Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the rules should be defined and styled using CSS. use the CSS property border on the adequate <thead>, <tbody>, <tfoot>, <col> or <colgroup> elements.
summary
This attribute defines an alternative text use to describe the table in user-agent unable to display it. Typically, it contents a description of it to allow visually impaired people, like blind people browsing the web using Braille screen, to get the information in it. If the information added in this attribute may also be useful for non-visually impaired people, consider using the <caption> instead. The summary attribute is not mandatory and may be omitted when a <caption> element fulfills its role.
Usage Note: Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated. Instead, use one of these way of describing a table:
  • In prose, surrounding the table (this is the less semantic-conveying way of doing it).
  • In the table's <caption> element.
  • In a <details> element, inside the table's <caption> element.
  • Include the <table> element in a <figure> element and add the description in prose next to it.
  • Include the <table> element in a <figure> element and add the description in prose inside a <figcaption> element.
  • Adjust the table so that such description is no more needed, by using <th> and <thead> elements for example.
width
This attribute defines the width of the table. It may either be a pixel length or a percentage value, representing the percentage of the width of its container that the table should use.
Usage Note: Do not use this attribute, as it has been deprecated: the rules should be defined and styled using CSS. use the CSS property width instead.

DOM interface

This element implements the HTMLTableElement interface.

Examples

Simple Table

<table>
  <tr>
    <td>John</td>
    <td>Doe</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Jane</td>
    <td>Doe</td>
  </tr>
</table>

More Examples

<p>Simple table with header</p>
<table>
  <tr>
    <th>First name</th>
    <th>Last name</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>John</td>
    <td>Doe</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Jane</td>
    <td>Doe</td>
  </tr>
</table>

<p>Table with thead, tfoot, and tbody</p>
<table>
  <thead>
    <tr>
      <th>Header content 1</th>
      <th>Header content 2</th>
    </tr>
  </thead>
  <tfoot>
    <tr>
      <td>Footer content 1</td>
      <td>Footer content 2</td>
    </tr>
  </tfoot>
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <td>Body content 1</td>
      <td>Body content 2</td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

<p>Table with colgroup</p>
<table>
  <colgroup span="4" class="columns"></colgroup>
  <tr>
    <th>Countries</th>
    <th>Capitals</th>
    <th>Population</th>
    <th>Language</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>USA</td>
    <td>Washington D.C.</td>
    <td>309 million</td>
    <td>English</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Sweden</td>
    <td>Stockholm</td>
    <td>9 million</td>
    <td>Swedish</td>
  </tr>
</table>

<p>Table with colgroup and col</p>
<table>
  <colgroup>
    <col class="column1">
    <col class="columns2plus3" span="2">
  </colgroup>
  <tr>
    <th>Lime</th>
    <th>Lemon</th>
    <th>Orange</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Green</td>
    <td>Yellow</td>
    <td>Orange</td>
  </tr>
</table>

<p>Simple table with caption</p>
<table>
  <caption>Awesome caption</caption>
  <tr>
    <td>Awesome data</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support 1.0 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) 4.0 7.0 1.0
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 1.0 1.0 (1) 6.0 6.0 1.0

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

Last updated by: squirly,