The HTMLInputElement interface provides special properties and methods for manipulating the layout and presentation of input elements.

Properties

Properties related to the parent form
form HTMLFormElementobject:  Returns a reference to the parent form element.
formAction string: Returns / Sets the element's formaction attribute, containing the URI of a program that processes information submitted by the element. This overrides the action attribute of the parent form.
formEncType string: Returns / Sets the element's formenctype attribute, containing the type of content that is used to submit the form to the server. This overrides the enctype attribute of the parent form.
formMethod string: Returns / Sets the element's formmethod attribute, containing the HTTP method that the browser uses to submit the form. This overrides the method attribute of the parent form.
formNoValidate boolean: Returns / Sets the element's formnovalidate attribute, indicating that the form is not to be validated when it is submitted. This overrides the novalidate attribute of the parent form.
formTarget string: Returns / Sets the element's formtarget attribute, containing a name or keyword indicating where to display the response that is received after submitting the form. This overrides the target attribute of the parent form.
Properties that apply to any type of input element that is not hidden
name string: Returns / Sets the element's name attribute, containing a name that identifies the element when submitting the form.
type string: Returns / Sets the element's type attribute, indicating the type of control to display. See type attribute of <input> for possible values.
disabled boolean: Returns / Sets the element's disabled attribute, indicating that the control is not available for interaction. The input values will not be submitted with the form. See also readonly 
autofocus boolean: Returns / Sets the element's autofocus attribute, which specifies that a form control should have input focus when the page loads, unless the user overrides it, for example by typing in a different control. Only one form element in a document can have the autofocus attribute. It cannot be applied if the type attribute is set to hidden (that is, you cannot automatically set focus to a hidden control).
required boolean: Returns / Sets the element's required attribute, indicating that the user must fill in a value before submitting a form.
value string: Returns / Sets the current value of the control.

Note: If the user enters a value different from the value expected, this may return an empty string.

validity Read only ValidityState object: Returns the validity state that this element is in.
validationMessage Read only string: Returns a localized message that describes the validation constraints that the control does not satisfy (if any). This is the empty string if the control is not a candidate for constraint validation (willvalidate is false), or it satisfies its constraints.
willValidate Boolean: Indicates whether the element is a candidate for constraint validation. It is false if any conditions bar it from constraint validation.
Properties that apply only to elements of type "checkbox" or "radio"
checked  boolean: Returns / Sets the current state of the element when type is checkbox or radio.
defaultChecked boolean: Returns / Sets the default state of a radio button or checkbox as originally specified in HTML that created this object.
indeterminate boolean: indicates that the checkbox is neither on nor off.
Properties that apply only to elements of type "image"
alt string: Returns / Sets the element's alt attribute, containing alternative text to use when type is image.
height string: Returns / Sets the element's height attribute, which defines the height of the image displayed for the button, if the value of type is image.
src string: Returns / Sets the element's src attribute, which specifies a URI for the location of an image to display on the graphical submit button, if the value of type is image; otherwise it is ignored.
width string: Returns / Sets the document's width attribute, which defines the width of the image displayed for the button, if the value of type is image.
Properties that apply only to elements of type "file"
accept string: Returns / Sets the element's accept attribute, containing comma-separated list of file types accepted by the server when type is file.
allowdirs boolean: Part of the non-standard Directory Upload API; indicates whether or not to allow directories and files both to be selected in the file list. Implemented only in Firefox and is hidden behind a preference.
webkitdirectory boolean: Returns the webkitdirectory attribute; if true, the file system picker interface only accepts directories instead of files.
webkitEntries Array of FileSystemEntry objects describing the currently-selected files or directories.
Properties that apply only to text/number-containing or elements
autocomplete string: Returns / Sets the element's autocomplete attribute, indicating whether the value of the control can be automatically completed by the browser. Ignored if the value of the type attribute is hidden, checkbox, radio, file, or a button type (button, submit, reset, image). Possible values are:
"on": the browser can autocomplete the value using previously stored value
"off": the user must explicity enter a value
maxLength long: Returns / Sets the element's maxlength attribute, containing the maximum length of characters (in Unicode code points) that the value can have. (If you set this to a negative number, an exception will be thrown.)
size unsigned long: Returns / Sets the element's size attribute, containing size of the control. This value is in pixels unless the value of type is text or password, in which case, it is an integer number of characters. Applies only when type is set to text, search, tel, url, email, or password; otherwise it is ignored.
pattern string: Returns / Sets the element's pattern attribute, containing a regular expression that the control's value is checked against.  Use the title attribute to describe the pattern to help the user. This attribute applies when the value of the type attribute is text, search, tel, url or email; otherwise it is ignored.
placeholder string: Returns / Sets the element's placeholder attribute, containing a hint to the user of what can be entered in the control. The placeholder text must not contain carriage returns or line-feeds. This attribute applies when the value of the type attribute is text, search, tel, url or email; otherwise it is ignored.
readOnly boolean: Returns / Sets the element's readonly attribute, indicating that the user cannot modify the value of the control.
HTML5This is ignored if the value of the type attribute is hidden, range, color, checkbox, radio, file, or a button type.
min string: Returns / Sets the element's min attribute, containing the minimum (numeric or date-time) value for this item, which must not be greater than its maximum (max attribute) value.
max string: Returns / Sets the element's max attribute, containing the maximum (numeric or date-time) value for this item, which must not be less than its minimum (min attribute) value.
selectionStart unsigned long: Returns / Sets the beginning index of the selected text. When nothing is selected, this returns the position of the text input cursor (caret) inside of the <input> element.
selectionEnd unsigned long: Returns / Sets the end index of the selected text. When there's no selection, this returns the offset of the character immediately following the current text input cursor position.
selectionDirection string: Returns / Sets the direction in which selection occurred. Possible values are:
"forward" if selection was performed in the start-to-end direction of the current locale,
"backward" for the opposite direction,
"none" if the direction is unknown."
Properties not yet categorized
defaultValue string: Returns / Sets the default value as originally specified in the HTML that created this object.
dirName string: Returns / Sets the directionality of the element.
accessKey string: Returns a string containing a single character that switches input focus to the control when pressed.
list Read only HTMLElement object: identifies a list of pre-defined options to suggest to the user. The value must be the id of a <datalist> element in the same document. The browser displays only options that are valid values for this input element. This attribute is ignored when the type attribute's value is hidden, checkbox, radio, file, or a button type. The property may be null if no HTML element matches the criteria.
multiple boolean: Returns / Sets the element's multiple attribute, indicating whether more than one value is possible (e.g., multiple files).
files Read only {domxref("FileList")}} array: Returns the list of selected files.
labels Read only NodeList array: Returns a list of <label> elements that are labels for this element.
step string: Returns / Sets the element's step attribute, which works with min and max to limit the increments at which a numeric or date-time value can be set. It can be the string any or a positive floating point number. If this is not set to any, the control accepts only values at multiples of the step value greater than the minimum.
valueAsDate Date object: Returns / Sets the value of the element, interpreted as a date, or null if conversion is not possible.
valueAsNumber double: Returns the value of the element, interpreted as one of the following, in order:
  • a time value
  • a number
  • NaN if conversion is impossible
autocapitalize string: defines the capitalization behavior for user input. Valid values are none, off, characters, words, or sentences.
HTMLInputElement.align
string: represents the alignment of the element. Use CSS instead.
HTMLInputElement.useMap
string: represents a client-side image map.

Methods

focus() Focus on the input element; keystrokes will subsequently go to this element.
blur() Removes focus from input; keystrokes will subsequently go nowhere.
select() Selects the input text in the element, and focuses it so the user can subsequently replace the whole entry.
click() Simulates a click on the element.
setSelectionRange() Selects a range of text in the element (but does not focus it). The optional selectionDirection parameter may be "forward" or "backward" to establish the direction in which selection was set, or "none" if the direction is unknown or not relevant. The default is "none". Specifying a selectionDirection parameter sets the value of the selectionDirection property.
setRangeText() Selects a range of text in the element (but does not focus it). The optional selectionDirection parameter may be "forward" or "backward" to establish the direction in which selection was set, or "none" if the direction is unknown or not relevant. The default is "none". Specifying a selectionDirection parameter sets the value of the selectionDirection property.
setCustomValidity() Sets a custom validity message for the element. If this message is not the empty string, then the element is suffering from a custom validity error, and does not validate.
checkValidity() Returns a Boolean that is false if the element is a candidate for constraint validation, and it does not satisfy its constraints. In this case, it also fires an invalid event at the element. It returns true if the element is not a candidate for constraint validation, or if it satisfies its constraints.
HTMLInputElement.stepDown()
Decrements the value by (step * n), where n defaults to 1 if not specified. Throws an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception:
  • if the method is not applicable to for the current type value,
  • if the element has no step value,
  • if the value cannot be converted to a number,
  • if the resulting value is above the max or below the min
HTMLInputElement.stepUp()
Increments the value by (step * n), where n defaults to 1 if not specified. Throws an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception:
  • if the method is not applicable to for the current type value.,
  • if the element has no step value,
  • if the value cannot be converted to a number,
  • if the resulting value is above the max or below the min.
HTMLInputElement.mozSetFileArray()
Sets the files selected on the input to the given array of File objects.  This is an alternative to mozSetFileNameArray() which can be used in frame scripts: a chrome script can open files as File objects and send them via message manager.
HTMLInputElement.mozGetFileNameArray()
Returns an array of all the file names from the input.
HTMLInputElement.mozSetFileNameArray()
Sets the filenames for the files selected on the input.  Not for use in frame scripts, because it accesses the file system.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
WHATWG HTML Living Standard
The definition of 'HTMLInputElement' in that specification.
Living Standard No change from HTML5
HTML5
The definition of 'HTMLInputElement' in that specification.
Recommendation Technically, the  tabindex and accesskey properties, as well as the blur(), click(), and focus() methods, are now defined on HTMLElement.
The following properties are now obsolete: align and useMap.
The following properties have been added: autocomplete, autofocus, dirName, files, formAction, formEncType, formMethod, formNoValidate, formTarget, height, indeterminate, labels, list, max, min, multiple, pattern, placeholder, required, selectionDirection, selectionEnd, selectionStart, step, validationMessage, validity, valueAsDate, valueAsNumber, width, and willValidate.
The following methods have been added: checkValidity(), setCustomValidity(), setSelectionRange(), stepUp(), and stepDown().
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification
The definition of 'HTMLInputElement' in that specification.
Recommendation The size property is now an unsigned long. The type property must be entirely given in lowercase characters.
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification
The definition of 'HTMLInputElement' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko)[1] Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support (Yes) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
autocomplete & autofocus properties (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
files property (Yes) 3.0 (1.9) 10 ? ?
multiple property (Yes) 3.6 (1.9.2) ? ? ?
indeterminate property ? (Yes) ? ? ?
list property ? (Yes) ? ? ?
formAction, formEncType, formMethod, formTarget properties (Yes) 4.0 (2) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
formNoValidate, validationMessage, validity, willValidate properties and setCustomValidity() and checkValidity() methods. (Yes) 4.0 (2) 10 (Yes) (Yes)
pattern, placeholder, required properties (Yes) 4.0 (2) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
height and weight properties (Yes) 16 (16) ? ? ?
labels property 14.0 No support (bug 556743) ? ? ?
min, max, and step for <input type="number"> (Yes) Experimental, and without specific UI, since 16 (16): behind the pref dom.experimental_forms ? ? (Yes)
stepUp and stepDown methods ? Experimental since 16 (16): behind the pref dom.experimental_forms

There are still differences with the latest spec: bug 835773
? ? ?
min, max, and step properties for <input type="range"> (Yes) 23 (23) ? ? (Yes)
min, max, and step properties for <input type="date"> (Yes) Experimental, and without specific UI, since 20 (20): behind the pref dom.experimental_forms ? ? (Yes)
min, max, and step properties for other date-related type values (Yes) No support ? ? (Yes)
mozGetFileNameArray() and mozSetFileNameArray() methods No support 3.6 (1.9.2) No support No support No support
mozSetFileArray() method No support 38 (38) No support No support No support
autocapitalize 43.0 ? ? ? ?
Feature Android Android Webview Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile Chrome for Android
Basic support (Yes) (Yes) 1.0 (1.0) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
autocapitalize No support 43.0 ? ? ? ? 43.0

[1] Prior to Firefox 51, Firefox incorrectly returned 0 for selectionStart and selectionEnd when there was no selection; now it correctly returns the offset of the character following the current text input cursor.

See also

  • HTML element implementing this interface: <input>.