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background 是一种 CSS 简写属性,用于一次性集中定义各种背景属性,包括 color, image, origin 与 size, repeat 方式等等。

此属性是一个 简写属性,可以在一次声明中定义一个或多个属性:background-clipbackground-colorbackground-imagebackground-originbackground-positionbackground-repeatbackground-size,和 background-attachment

对于所有简写属性,任何没有被指定的值都会被设定为它们的 初始值

语法

/* 使用 <background-color> */
background: green;

/* 使用 <bg-image> 和 <repeat-style> */
background: url("test.jpg") repeat-y;

/* 使用 <box> 和 <background-color> */
background: border-box red;

/* 将背景设为一张居中放大的图片 */
background: no-repeat center/80% url("../img/image.png");

background 属性被指定为使用逗号分隔的一个或多个背景层。

The syntax of each layer is as follows:

注意:  background-color 只能在background的最后一个属性上定义,因为整个元素只有一种背景颜色。

下面的一个或多个值,可以按任意顺序放置:

<attachment>
参见 background-attachment
<box>
参见 background-clipbackground-origin
<background-color>
参见 background-color
<bg-image>
参见 background-image
<position>
参见 background-position
<repeat-style>
参见 background-repeat
<bg-size>
参见 background-size

标准语法

[ <bg-layer> , ]* <final-bg-layer>

where
<bg-layer> = <bg-image> || <bg-position> [ / <bg-size> ]? || <repeat-style> || <attachment> || <box> || <box>
<final-bg-layer> = <'background-color'> || <bg-image> || <bg-position> [ / <bg-size> ]? || <repeat-style> || <attachment> || <box> || <box>

where
<bg-image> = none | <image>
<bg-position> = [ [ left | center | right | top | bottom | <length-percentage> ] | [ left | center | right | <length-percentage> ] [ top | center | bottom | <length-percentage> ] | [ center | [ left | right ] <length-percentage>? ] && [ center | [ top | bottom ] <length-percentage>? ] ]
<bg-size> = [ <length-percentage> | auto ]{1,2} | cover | contain
<repeat-style> = repeat-x | repeat-y | [ repeat | space | round | no-repeat ]{1,2}
<attachment> = scroll | fixed | local
<box> = border-box | padding-box | content-box

where
<image> = <url> | <image()> | <image-set()> | <element()> | <cross-fade()> | <gradient>
<length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage>

where
<image()> = image( [ [ <image> | <string> ]? , <color>? ]! )
<image-set()> = image-set( <image-set-option># )
<element()> = element( <id-selector> )
<cross-fade()> = cross-fade( <cf-mixing-image> , <cf-final-image>? )
<gradient> = <linear-gradient()> | <repeating-linear-gradient()> | <radial-gradient()> | <repeating-radial-gradient()>

where
<color> = <rgb()> | <rgba()> | <hsl()> | <hsla()> | <hex-color> | <named-color> | currentcolor | <deprecated-system-color>
<image-set-option> = [ <image> | <string> ] <resolution>
<id-selector> = <hash-token>
<cf-mixing-image> = <percentage>? && <image>
<cf-final-image> = <image> | <color>
<linear-gradient()> = linear-gradient( [ <angle> | to <side-or-corner> ]? , <color-stop-list> )
<repeating-linear-gradient()> = repeating-linear-gradient( [ <angle> | to <side-or-corner> ]? , <color-stop-list> )
<radial-gradient()> = radial-gradient( [ <ending-shape> || <size> ]? [ at <position> ]? , <color-stop-list> )
<repeating-radial-gradient()> = repeating-radial-gradient( [ <ending-shape> || <size> ]? [ at <position> ]? , <color-stop-list> )

where
<rgb()> = rgb( <percentage>{3} [ / <alpha-value> ]? ) | rgb( <number>{3} [ / <alpha-value> ]? ) | rgb( <percentage>#{3} , <alpha-value>? ) | rgb( <number>#{3} , <alpha-value>? )
<rgba()> = rgba( <percentage>{3} [ / <alpha-value> ]? ) | rgba( <number>{3} [ / <alpha-value> ]? ) | rgba( <percentage>#{3} , <alpha-value>? ) | rgba( <number>#{3} , <alpha-value>? )
<hsl()> = hsl( <hue> <percentage> <percentage> [ / <alpha-value> ]? ) | hsl( <hue>, <percentage>, <percentage>, <alpha-value>? )
<hsla()> = hsla( <hue> <percentage> <percentage> [ / <alpha-value> ]? ) | hsla( <hue>, <percentage>, <percentage>, <alpha-value>? )
<side-or-corner> = [ left | right ] || [ top | bottom ]
<color-stop-list> = <color-stop>#{2,}
<ending-shape> = circle | ellipse
<size> = closest-side | farthest-side | closest-corner | farthest-corner | <length> | <length-percentage>{2}
<position> = [ [ left | center | right ] || [ top | center | bottom ] | [ left | center | right | <length-percentage> ] [ top | center | bottom | <length-percentage> ]? | [ [ left | right ] <length-percentage> ] && [ [ top | bottom ] <length-percentage> ] ]

where
<alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage>
<hue> = <number> | <angle>
<color-stop> = <color> <length-percentage>?

示例

HTML

<p class="topbanner">
  Starry sky<br/>
  Twinkle twinkle<br/>
  Starry sky
</p>
<p class="warning">Here is a paragraph<p>

CSS

.warning { 
  background: red; 
}

.topbanner { 
  background: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11983/starsolid.gif") #99f repeat-y fixed; 
}

结果

规范

规范 状态 注释
CSS Backgrounds and Borders Module Level 3
background
Candidate Recommendation 此简写属性已经扩展出了多重背景和诸如 background-sizebackground-originbackground-clip 等新属性。
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
background
Recommendation 无重大修改
CSS Level 1
background
Recommendation 初始定义

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support112143.51
Multiple backgrounds1123.6910.51.3
SVG image as background311299215.1
Values of background-size longhand211299215.1
Values of background-origin longhand2112229215.1
Values of background-clip longhand2112229215.1
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic support2.1 ? Yes453.2 ?
Multiple backgrounds2.1 ? Yes4 ?3.2 ?
SVG image as background3 ? Yes4 Yes4.2 ?
Values of background-size longhand3 ? Yes18 Yes4 ?
Values of background-origin longhand3 ? Yes22 No4 ?
Values of background-clip longhand3 ? Yes22 No4 ?

参见

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