Array.from()

The Array.from() static method creates a new, shallow-copied Array instance from an iterable or array-like object.

Try it

Syntax

// Arrow function
Array.from(arrayLike, (element) => { /* … */ } )
Array.from(arrayLike, (element, index) => { /* … */ } )

// Mapping function
Array.from(arrayLike, mapFn)
Array.from(arrayLike, mapFn, thisArg)

// Inline mapping function
Array.from(arrayLike, function mapFn(element) { /* … */ })
Array.from(arrayLike, function mapFn(element, index) { /* … */ })
Array.from(arrayLike, function mapFn(element) { /* … */ }, thisArg)
Array.from(arrayLike, function mapFn(element, index) { /* … */ }, thisArg)

Parameters

arrayLike

An iterable or array-like object to convert to an array.

mapFn Optional

Map function to call on every element of the array.

thisArg Optional

Value to use as this when executing mapFn.

Return value

A new Array instance.

Description

Array.from() lets you create Arrays from:

  • iterable objects (objects such as Map and Set); or, if the object is not iterable,
  • array-like objects (objects with a length property and indexed elements).

Array.from() has an optional parameter mapFn, which allows you to execute a map() function on each element of the array being created.

More clearly, Array.from(obj, mapFn, thisArg) has the same result as Array.from(obj).map(mapFn, thisArg), except that it does not create an intermediate array, and mapFn only receives two arguments (element, index) without the whole array, because the array is still under construction.

Note: This is especially important for certain array subclasses, like typed arrays, since the intermediate array would necessarily have values truncated to fit into the appropriate type.

The length property of the from() method is 1.

In ES2015, the class syntax allows sub-classing of both built-in and user-defined classes. As a result, static methods such as Array.from() are "inherited" by subclasses of Array, and create new instances of the subclass, not Array. The Array.from() method is also defined generically and can be defined on any constructor that accepts a single number argument.

Examples

Array from a String

Array.from('foo');
// [ "f", "o", "o" ]

Array from a Set

const set = new Set(['foo', 'bar', 'baz', 'foo']);
Array.from(set);
// [ "foo", "bar", "baz" ]

Array from a Map

const map = new Map([[1, 2], [2, 4], [4, 8]]);
Array.from(map);
// [[1, 2], [2, 4], [4, 8]]

const mapper = new Map([['1', 'a'], ['2', 'b']]);
Array.from(mapper.values());
// ['a', 'b'];

Array.from(mapper.keys());
// ['1', '2'];

Array from a NodeList

// Create an array based on a property of DOM Elements
const images = document.getElementsByTagName('img');
const sources = Array.from(images, (image) => image.src);
const insecureSources = sources.filter((link) => link.startsWith('http://'));

Array from an Array-like object (arguments)

function f() {
  return Array.from(arguments);
}

f(1, 2, 3);

// [ 1, 2, 3 ]

Using arrow functions and Array.from()

// Using an arrow function as the map function to
// manipulate the elements
Array.from([1, 2, 3], (x) => x + x);
// [2, 4, 6]

// Generate a sequence of numbers
// Since the array is initialized with `undefined` on each position,
// the value of `v` below will be `undefined`
Array.from({length: 5}, (v, i) => i);
// [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

Sequence generator (range)

// Sequence generator function (commonly referred to as "range", e.g. Clojure, PHP etc)
const range = (start, stop, step) => Array.from({ length: (stop - start) / step + 1}, (_, i) => start + (i * step));

// Generate numbers range 0..4
range(0, 4, 1);
// [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

// Generate numbers range 1..10 with step of 2
range(1, 10, 2);
// [1, 3, 5, 7, 9]

// Generate the alphabet using Array.from making use of it being ordered as a sequence
range('A'.charCodeAt(0), 'Z'.charCodeAt(0), 1).map((x) => String.fromCharCode(x));
// ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H", "I", "J", "K", "L", "M", "N", "O", "P", "Q", "R", "S", "T", "U", "V", "W", "X", "Y", "Z"]

Specifications

Specification
ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-array.from

Browser compatibility

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See also