The includes() method determines whether an array includes a certain value among its entries, returning true or false as appropriate.

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includes(searchElement, fromIndex)



The value to search for.

Note: When comparing strings and characters, includes() is case-sensitive.

fromIndex Optional

The position in this array at which to begin searching for searchElement.

The first element to be searched is found at fromIndex for positive values of fromIndex, or at arr.length + fromIndex for negative values of fromIndex (using the absolute value of fromIndex as the number of elements from the end of the array at which to start the search).

Defaults to 0.

Return value

A boolean value which is true if the value searchElement is found within the array (or the part of the array indicated by the index fromIndex, if specified).


Values of zero are all considered to be equal, regardless of sign. (That is, -0 is considered to be equal to both 0 and +0), but false is not considered to be the same as 0. NaN can be correctly searched for.

Note: Technically speaking, includes() uses the SameValueZero algorithm to determine whether the given element is found.

When used on sparse arrays, the includes() method iterates empty slots as if they have the value undefined.


Using includes()

[1, 2, 3].includes(2)         // true
[1, 2, 3].includes(4)         // false
[1, 2, 3].includes(3, 3)      // false
[1, 2, 3].includes(3, -1)     // true
[1, 2, NaN].includes(NaN)     // true
["1", "2", "3"].includes(3)   // false

fromIndex is greater than or equal to the array length

If fromIndex is greater than or equal to the length of the array, false is returned. The array will not be searched.

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

arr.includes('c', 3)    // false
arr.includes('c', 100)  // false

Computed index is less than 0

If fromIndex is negative, the computed index is calculated to be used as a position in the array at which to begin searching for searchElement. If the computed index is less than or equal to 0, the entire array will be searched.

// array length is 3
// fromIndex is -100
// computed index is 3 + (-100) = -97

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

arr.includes('a', -100) // true
arr.includes('b', -100) // true
arr.includes('c', -100) // true
arr.includes('a', -2)   // false

Using includes() on sparse arrays

You can search for undefined in a sparse array and get true.

console.log([1, , 3].includes(undefined)); // true

includes() used as a generic method

includes() method is intentionally generic. It does not require this value to be an Array object, so it can be applied to other kinds of objects (e.g. array-like objects).

The example below illustrates includes() method called on the function's arguments object.

(function () {
  console.log(, 'a')); // true
  console.log(, 'd')); // false
})('a', 'b', 'c');


ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-array.prototype.includes

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See also