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Array.prototype.copyWithin()

The copyWithin() method shallow copies part of an array to another location in the same array and returns it, without modifying its size.

Syntax

arr.copyWithin(target[, start[, end]])

Parameters

target
Zero based index at which to copy the sequence to. If negative, target will be counted from the end.
If target is at or greater than arr.length, nothing will be copied. If target is positioned after start, the copied sequence will be trimmed to fit arr.length.
start
Zero based index at which to start copying elements from. If negative, start will be counted from the end.
If start is omitted, copyWithin will copy from the start (defaults to 0).
end
Zero based index at which to end copying elements from. copyWithin copies up to but not including end. If negative, end will be counted from the end.
If end is omitted, copyWithin will copy until the end (default to arr.length).

Description

copyWithin works like C and C++'s memcpy, and is a high-performance method to shift the data of an Array or TypedArray. The sequence is copied and pasted as one operation; pasted sequence will have the copied values even when the copy and paste region overlap.

The copyWithin function is intentionally generic, it does not require that its this value be an Array object.

The copyWithin method is a mutable method. It does not alter the length of this, but will change its content and create new properties if necessary.

Examples

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5].copyWithin(-2);
// [1, 2, 3, 1, 2]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5].copyWithin(0, 3);
// [4, 5, 3, 4, 5]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5].copyWithin(0, 3, 4);
// [4, 2, 3, 4, 5]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5].copyWithin(-2, -3, -1);
// [1, 2, 3, 3, 4]

[].copyWithin.call({length: 5, 3: 1}, 0, 3);
// {0: 1, 3: 1, length: 5}

// ES6 Typed Arrays are subclasses of Array
var i32a = new Int32Array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);

i32a.copyWithin(0, 2);
// Int32Array [3, 4, 5, 4, 5]

// On platforms that are not yet ES6 compliant: 
[].copyWithin.call(new Int32Array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]), 0, 3, 4);
// Int32Array [4, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Polyfill

if (!Array.prototype.copyWithin) {
  Array.prototype.copyWithin = function(target, start/*, end*/) {
    // Steps 1-2.
    if (this == null) {
      throw new TypeError('this is null or not defined');
    }

    var O = Object(this);

    // Steps 3-5.
    var len = O.length >>> 0;

    // Steps 6-8.
    var relativeTarget = target >> 0;

    var to = relativeTarget < 0 ?
      Math.max(len + relativeTarget, 0) :
      Math.min(relativeTarget, len);

    // Steps 9-11.
    var relativeStart = start >> 0;

    var from = relativeStart < 0 ?
      Math.max(len + relativeStart, 0) :
      Math.min(relativeStart, len);

    // Steps 12-14.
    var end = arguments[2];
    var relativeEnd = end === undefined ? len : end >> 0;

    var final = relativeEnd < 0 ?
      Math.max(len + relativeEnd, 0) :
      Math.min(relativeEnd, len);

    // Step 15.
    var count = Math.min(final - from, len - to);

    // Steps 16-17.
    var direction = 1;

    if (from < to && to < (from + count)) {
      direction = -1;
      from += count - 1;
      to += count - 1;
    }

    // Step 18.
    while (count > 0) {
      if (from in O) {
        O[to] = O[from];
      } else {
        delete O[to];
      }

      from += direction;
      to += direction;
      count--;
    }

    // Step 19.
    return O;
  };
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.copyWithin' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript 2017 Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.copyWithin' in that specification.
Draft  

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Edge Opera Safari
Basic support 45 32 (32) No support 12 No support No support
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support No support No support 32.0 (32) No support No support No support

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

 Contributors to this page: yan, Sheepy, fscholz, SphinxKnight, Mingun, rwaldron, ziyunfei
 Last updated by: yan,