<iframe>: The Inline Frame element

The <iframe> HTML element represents a nested browsing context, embedding another HTML page into the current one.

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Each embedded browsing context has its own document and allows URL navigations. The navigations of each embedded browsing context are linearized into the session history of the topmost browsing context. The browsing context that embeds the others is called the parent browsing context. The topmost browsing context — the one with no parent — is usually the browser window, represented by the Window object.

Warning: Because each browsing context is a complete document environment, every <iframe> in a page requires increased memory and other computing resources. While theoretically you can use as many <iframe>s as you like, check for performance problems.

Attributes

This element includes the global attributes.

allow

Specifies a Permissions Policy for the <iframe>. The policy defines what features are available to the <iframe> (for example, access to the microphone, camera, battery, web-share, etc.) based on the origin of the request.

See iframes in the Permissions-Policy topic for examples.

Note: A Permissions Policy specified by the allow attribute implements a further restriction on top of the policy specified in the Permissions-Policy header. It doesn't replace it.

allowfullscreen

Set to true if the <iframe> can activate fullscreen mode by calling the requestFullscreen() method.

Note: This attribute is considered a legacy attribute and redefined as allow="fullscreen".

allowpaymentrequest Deprecated Non-standard

Set to true if a cross-origin <iframe> should be allowed to invoke the Payment Request API.

Note: This attribute is considered a legacy attribute and redefined as allow="payment".

credentialless Experimental

Set to true to make the <iframe> credentialless, meaning that its content will be loaded in a new, ephemeral context. It doesn't have access to the network, cookies, and storage data associated with its origin. It uses a new context local to the top-level document lifetime. In return, the Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy (COEP) embedding rules can be lifted, so documents with COEP set can embed third-party documents that do not. See IFrame credentialless for more details.

csp Experimental

A Content Security Policy enforced for the embedded resource. See HTMLIFrameElement.csp for details.

height

The height of the frame in CSS pixels. Default is 150.

loading

Indicates when the browser should load the iframe:

eager

Load the iframe immediately on page load (this is the default value).

lazy

Defer loading of the iframe until it reaches a calculated distance from the visual viewport, as defined by the browser. The intent is to avoid using the network and storage bandwidth required to fetch the frame until the browser is reasonably certain that it will be needed. This improves the performance and cost in most typical use cases, in particular by reducing initial page load times.

Note: Loading is only deferred when JavaScript is enabled. This is an anti-tracking measure.

name

A targetable name for the embedded browsing context. This can be used in the target attribute of the <a>, <form>, or <base> elements; the formtarget attribute of the <input> or <button> elements; or the windowName parameter in the window.open() method.

referrerpolicy

Indicates which referrer to send when fetching the frame's resource:

no-referrer

The Referer header will not be sent.

no-referrer-when-downgrade

The Referer header will not be sent to origins without TLS (HTTPS).

origin

The sent referrer will be limited to the origin of the referring page: its scheme, host, and port.

origin-when-cross-origin

The referrer sent to other origins will be limited to the scheme, the host, and the port. Navigations on the same origin will still include the path.

same-origin

A referrer will be sent for same origin, but cross-origin requests will contain no referrer information.

strict-origin

Only send the origin of the document as the referrer when the protocol security level stays the same (HTTPS→HTTPS), but don't send it to a less secure destination (HTTPS→HTTP).

strict-origin-when-cross-origin (default)

Send a full URL when performing a same-origin request, only send the origin when the protocol security level stays the same (HTTPS→HTTPS), and send no header to a less secure destination (HTTPS→HTTP).

unsafe-url

The referrer will include the origin and the path (but not the fragment, password, or username). This value is unsafe, because it leaks origins and paths from TLS-protected resources to insecure origins.

sandbox

Controls the restrictions applied to the content embedded in the <iframe>. The value of the attribute can either be empty to apply all restrictions, or space-separated tokens to lift particular restrictions:

allow-downloads

Allows downloading files through an <a> or <area> element with the download attribute, as well as through the navigation that leads to a download of a file. This works regardless of whether the user clicked on the link, or JS code initiated it without user interaction.

allow-downloads-without-user-activation Experimental

Allows for downloads to occur without a gesture from the user.

allow-forms

Allows the page to submit forms. If this keyword is not used, form will be displayed as normal, but submitting it will not trigger input validation, sending data to a web server or closing a dialog.

allow-modals

Allows the page to open modal windows by Window.alert(), Window.confirm(), Window.print() and Window.prompt(), while opening a <dialog> is allowed regardless of this keyword. It also allows the page to receive BeforeUnloadEvent event.

allow-orientation-lock

Lets the resource lock the screen orientation.

allow-pointer-lock

Allows the page to use the Pointer Lock API.

allow-popups

Allows popups (like from Window.open(), target="_blank", Window.showModalDialog()). If this keyword is not used, that functionality will silently fail.

allow-popups-to-escape-sandbox

Allows a sandboxed document to open a new browsing context without forcing the sandboxing flags upon it. This will allow, for example, a third-party advertisement to be safely sandboxed without forcing the same restrictions upon the page the ad links to. If this flag is not included, a redirected page, popup window, or new tab will be subject to the same sandbox restrictions as the originating <iframe>.

allow-presentation

Allows embedders to have control over whether an iframe can start a presentation session.

allow-same-origin

If this token is not used, the resource is treated as being from a special origin that always fails the same-origin policy (potentially preventing access to data storage/cookies and some JavaScript APIs).

allow-scripts

Allows the page to run scripts (but not create pop-up windows). If this keyword is not used, this operation is not allowed.

allow-storage-access-by-user-activation Experimental

Allows a document loaded in the <iframe> to use the Storage Access API to request access to unpartitioned cookies.

allow-top-navigation

Lets the resource navigate the top-level browsing context (the one named _top).

allow-top-navigation-by-user-activation

Lets the resource navigate the top-level browsing context, but only if initiated by a user gesture.

allow-top-navigation-to-custom-protocols

Allows navigations to non-http protocols built into browser or registered by a website. This feature is also activated by allow-popups or allow-top-navigation keyword.

Note:

  • When the embedded document has the same origin as the embedding page, it is strongly discouraged to use both allow-scripts and allow-same-origin, as that lets the embedded document remove the sandbox attribute — making it no more secure than not using the sandbox attribute at all.
  • Sandboxing is useless if the attacker can display content outside a sandboxed iframe — such as if the viewer opens the frame in a new tab. Such content should be also served from a separate origin to limit potential damage.

Note: When redirecting the user, opening a popup window, or opening a new tab from an embedded page within an <iframe> with the sandbox attribute, the new browsing context is subject to the same sandbox restrictions. This can create issues — for example, if a page embedded within an <iframe> without a sandbox="allow-forms" or sandbox="allow-popups-to-escape-sandbox" attribute set on it opens a new site in a separate tab, form submission in that new browsing context will silently fail.

src

The URL of the page to embed. Use a value of about:blank to embed an empty page that conforms to the same-origin policy. Also note that programmatically removing an <iframe>'s src attribute (e.g. via Element.removeAttribute()) causes about:blank to be loaded in the frame in Firefox (from version 65), Chromium-based browsers, and Safari/iOS.

srcdoc

Inline HTML to embed, overriding the src attribute. If a browser does not support the srcdoc attribute, it will fall back to the URL in the src attribute.

width

The width of the frame in CSS pixels. Default is 300.

Deprecated attributes

These attributes are deprecated and may no longer be supported by all user agents. You should not use them in new content, and try to remove them from existing content.

align Deprecated

The alignment of this element with respect to the surrounding context.

frameborder Deprecated

The value 1 (the default) draws a border around this frame. The value 0 removes the border around this frame, but you should instead use the CSS property border to control <iframe> borders.

longdesc Deprecated

A URL of a long description of the frame's content. Due to widespread misuse, this is not helpful for non-visual browsers.

marginheight Deprecated

The amount of space in pixels between the frame's content and its top and bottom borders.

marginwidth Deprecated

The amount of space in pixels between the frame's content and its left and right borders.

scrolling Deprecated

Indicates when the browser should provide a scrollbar for the frame:

auto

Only when the frame's content is larger than its dimensions.

yes

Always show a scrollbar.

no

Never show a scrollbar.

Scripting

Inline frames, like <frame> elements, are included in the window.frames pseudo-array.

With the DOM HTMLIFrameElement object, scripts can access the window object of the framed resource via the contentWindow property. The contentDocument property refers to the document inside the <iframe>, same as contentWindow.document.

From the inside of a frame, a script can get a reference to its parent window with window.parent.

Script access to a frame's content is subject to the same-origin policy. Scripts cannot access most properties in other window objects if the script was loaded from a different origin, including scripts inside a frame accessing the frame's parent. Cross-origin communication can be achieved using Window.postMessage().

Positioning and scaling

As a replaced element, the position, alignment, and scaling of the embedded document within the <iframe> element's box, can be adjusted with the object-position and object-fit properties.

error and load event behavior

The error and load events fired on <iframe>s could be used to probe the URL space of the local network's HTTP servers. Therefore, as a security precaution user agents do not fire the error event on <iframe>s, and the load event is always triggered even if the <iframe> content fails to load.

Examples

A simple <iframe>

This example embeds the page at https://example.org in an iframe.

HTML

html
<iframe
  src="https://example.org"
  title="iframe Example 1"
  width="400"
  height="300">
</iframe>

Result

Accessibility concerns

People navigating with assistive technology such as a screen reader can use the title attribute on an <iframe> to label its content. The title's value should concisely describe the embedded content:

html
<iframe
  title="Wikipedia page for Avocados"
  src="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avocado"></iframe>

Without this title, they have to navigate into the <iframe> to determine what its embedded content is. This context shift can be confusing and time-consuming, especially for pages with multiple <iframe>s and/or if embeds contain interactive content like video or audio.

Technical summary

Content categories Flow content, phrasing content, embedded content, interactive content, palpable content.
Permitted content None.
Tag omission None, both the starting and ending tag are mandatory.
Permitted parents Any element that accepts embedded content.
Implicit ARIA role No corresponding role
Permitted ARIA roles application, document, img, none, presentation
DOM interface HTMLIFrameElement

Specifications

Specification
HTML Standard
# the-iframe-element

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also