Window.open()

The Window interface's open() method loads the specified resource into the new or existing browsing context (window, <iframe> or tab) with the specified name. If the name doesn't exist, then a new browsing context is opened in a new tab or a new window, and the specified resource is loaded into it.

Syntax

var window = window.open(url, windowName, [windowFeatures]);

Parameters

url
A DOMString indicating the URL of the resource to be loaded. This can be a path or URL to an HTML page, image file, or any other resource that is supported by the browser. If the empty string ("") is specified as url, a blank page is opened into the targeted browsing context.
windowName Optional
A DOMString specifying the name of the browsing context (window, <iframe> or tab) into which to load the specified resource; if the name doesn't indicate an existing context, a new window is created and is given the name specified by windowName.

This name can be used as the target for the target attribute of <a> or <form> elements. The name should not contain whitespace. Keep in mind that this will NOT be used as the window's title.
windowFeatures Optional
A DOMString containing a comma-separated list of window features given with their corresponding values in the form "name=value". These features include options such as the window's default size and position, whether or not to include toolbar, and so forth. There must be no whitespace in the string. See Window features below for documentation of each of the features that can be specified.

Return value

A WindowProxy object, which is basically a thin wrapper for the Window object representing the newly created window, and has all its features available. If the window couldn't be opened, the returned value is instead null. The returned reference can be used to access properties and methods of the new window as long as it complies with Same-origin policy security requirements.

Description

The open() method creates a new secondary browser window, similar to choosing New Window from the File menu. The url parameter specifies the URL to be fetched and loaded in the new window. If url is an empty string, then a new blank, empty window (URL about:blank) is created with the default toolbars of the main window.

Note that remote URLs won't load immediately. When window.open() returns, the window always contains about:blank. The actual fetching of the URL is deferred and starts after the current script block finishes executing. The window creation and the loading of the referenced resource are done asynchronously.

Examples

var windowObjectReference;
var windowFeatures = "menubar=yes,location=yes,resizable=yes,scrollbars=yes,status=yes";

function openRequestedPopup() {
  windowObjectReference = window.open("http://www.cnn.com/", "CNN_WindowName", windowFeatures);
}
var windowObjectReference;

function openRequestedPopup() {
  windowObjectReference = window.open(
    "http://www.domainname.ext/path/ImageFile.png",
    "DescriptiveWindowName",
    "resizable,scrollbars,status"
  );
}

If a window with the name already exists, then url is loaded into the existing window. In this case the return value of the method is the existing window and windowFeatures is ignored. Providing an empty string for url is a way to get a reference to an open window by its name without changing the window's location. On Firefox and Chrome (at least), this only works from the same parent, ie. if the current window is the opener of the window you try to get an handle on. Otherwise the call to window.open() will just create a new window.

To open a new window on every call of window.open(), use the special value _blank for windowName.

Note on the use of window.open() to reopen an existing window with name windowName : This functionality is not valid for all browsers and more with variable conditions. Firefox (50.0.1) functions as described: from the same domain+port reopen with same name will access the previously created window. Google Chrome (55.0.2883.87 m ) on the other hand will do it only from the same parent (as if the window was created dependent, which is the "opener"). This is a wide limitation and generates unbelievable complexity of development. Firefox (51.) gets the handle but cannot run any Element.focus() while Chrome can run focus() from opener to child but not between siblings nor, reverse, from child to opener. This function is the lonely key to get back the handle on a window if the developer has access only to its name (the name can be saved with cookies or local storage but not the window object handle). For now 10/01/2017 the differencies of behavior found recently have not still been tested for others Browsers.

Window features

windowFeatures is an optional string containing a comma-separated list of requested features of the new window. After a window is opened, JavaScript can't be used to change the features. If windowName does not specify an existing window and the windowFeatures parameter is not provided (or if the windowFeatures parameter is an empty string), then the new secondary window will render the default toolbars of the main window.

Tip: Note that in some browsers, users can override the windowFeatures settings and enable (or prevent the disabling of) features

Position and size features

windowFeatures parameter can specify the position and size of the new window.

Note on position and dimension error correction

Position

If only one of them is specified, the behavior is implementation-dependent, and web author should not rely on it.

left or screenX
Specifies the distance the new window is placed from the left side of the work area for applications of the user's operating system to the leftmost border (resizing handle) of the browser window. The new window cannot be initially positioned offscreen.
top or screenY
Specifies the distance the new window is placed from the top side of the work area for applications of the user's operating system to the topmost border (resizing handle) of the browser window. The new window cannot be initially positioned offscreen.

If the windowFeatures parameter is non-empty and if no position features are defined, then the left and top coordinates of the new window dimension will be 22 pixels from where the most recently rendered window was. An offset is universally implemented by browser manufacturers (it is 29 pixels in IE6 SP2 with the default theme) and its purpose is to help users to notice new windows opening. If the most recently used window was maximized, then there is no offset: the new window will be maximized as well.

Size

If only one of them is specified, the behavior is implementation-dependent, and web author should not rely on it.

width or innerWidth
Specifies the width of the content area, viewing area of the new secondary window in pixels. The width value includes the width of the vertical scrollbar if present. The width value does not include the sidebar if it is expanded. The minimum required value is 100.
height or innerHeight
Specifies the height of the content area, viewing area of the new secondary window in pixels. The height value includes the height of the horizontal scrollbar if present. The height value does not include other UI parts such as location bar, title bar, tab bar, etc. The minimum required value is 100.

If the windowFeatures parameter is non-empty and no size features are defined, then the new window dimensions will be the same as the dimensions of the most recently rendered window.

Browser-dependent size features

Do not use them.

outerWidth (only on Firefox, obsolete from Firefox 80)
Specifies the width of the whole browser window in pixels. This outerWidth value includes the window vertical scrollbar (if present) and left and right window resizing borders.
outerHeight (only on Firefox, obsolete from Firefox 80)
Specifies the height of the whole browser window in pixels. This outerHeight value includes any/all present toolbar, window horizontal scrollbar (if present) and top and bottom window resizing borders. Minimal required value is 100.

Toolbar and UI parts features

In modern browsers (Firefox 76 or newer, Google Chrome, Safari, Chromium Edge), the following features are just a condition for whether to open popup or not. See popup condition section.

The following features control the visibility of each UI parts, All features can be set to yes or 1, or just be present to be on. Set them to no or 0, or in most cases just omit them, to be off.

Example: status=yes, status=1, and status have identical results.

menubar
If this feature is on, then the new secondary window renders the menubar.

If windowFeatures is non-empty, menubar defaults to off.
toolbar
If this feature is on, then the new secondary window renders the toolbar buttons (Back, Forward, Reload, Stop buttons).

In addition to the toolbar buttons, Firefox (before 76) will render the Tab Bar if it is visible, present in the parent window. (If this feature is set to off, all toolbars in the window will be invisible).

If windowFeatures is non-empty, toolbar defaults to off.
location
If this feature is on, then the new secondary window renders the location bar or the address bar.

If windowFeatures is non-empty, location defaults to off.
status
If this feature is on, then the new secondary window has a status bar.

If windowFeatures is non-empty, status defaults to off.
resizable
If this feature is on, the new secondary window will be resizable.

If windowFeatures is non-empty, resizable defaults to on.

Tip: For accessibility reasons, it is strongly recommended to set this feature always on

scrollbars
If this feature is on, the new secondary window will show horizontal and/or vertical scrollbar(s) if the document doesn't fit into the window's viewport.

If windowFeatures is non-empty, scrollbars defaults to off.

See note on scrollbars.

Tip: For accessibility reasons, it is strongly encouraged to set this feature always on

Window functionality features

noopener
If this feature is set, the newly-opened window will open as normal, except that it will not have access back to the originating window (via Window.opener ‚ÄĒ it returns null). In addition, the window.open() call will also return null, so the originating window will not have access to the new one either. This is useful for preventing untrusted sites opened via window.open() from tampering with the originating window, and vice versa.
Note that when noopener is used, nonempty target names other than _top, _self, and _parent are all treated like _blank in terms of deciding whether to open a new window/tab.

This is supported in modern browsers including Chrome, and Firefox 52+. See rel="noopener" for more information and for browser compatibility details, including information about ancillary effects.
noreferrer
If this feature is set, the request to load the content located at the specified URL will be loaded with the request's referrer set to noreferrer; this prevents the request from sending the URL of the page that initiated the request to the server where the request is sent. In addition, setting this feature also automatically sets noopener. See rel="noreferrer" for additional details and compatibility information. Firefox introduced support for noreferrer in Firefox 68.

Best practices

<script type="text/javascript">
var windowObjectReference = null; // global variable

function openFFPromotionPopup() {
  if(windowObjectReference == null || windowObjectReference.closed)
  /* if the pointer to the window object in memory does not exist
     or if such pointer exists but the window was closed */

  {
    windowObjectReference = window.open("http://www.spreadfirefox.com/",
   "PromoteFirefoxWindowName", "resizable,scrollbars,status");
    /* then create it. The new window will be created and
       will be brought on top of any other window. */
  }
  else
  {
    windowObjectReference.focus();
    /* else the window reference must exist and the window
       is not closed; therefore, we can bring it back on top of any other
       window with the focus() method. There would be no need to re-create
       the window or to reload the referenced resource. */
  };
}
</script>

(...)

<p><a
 href="http://www.spreadfirefox.com/"
 target="PromoteFirefoxWindowName"
 onclick="openFFPromotionPopup(); return false;" 
 title="This link will create a new window or will re-use an already opened one"
>Promote Firefox adoption</a></p>

The above code solves a few usability problems related to links opening secondary window. The purpose of the return false in the code is to cancel default action of the link: if the onclick event handler is executed, then there is no need to execute the default action of the link. But if javascript support is disabled or non-existent on the user's browser, then the onclick event handler is ignored and the browser loads the referenced resource in the target frame or window that has the name "PromoteFirefoxWindowName". If no frame nor window has the name "PromoteFirefoxWindowName", then the browser will create a new window and will name it "PromoteFirefoxWindowName".

More reading on the use of the target attribute:

HTML 4.01 Target attribute specifications

How do I create a link that opens a new window?

You can also parameterize the function to make it versatile, functional in more situations, therefore re-usable in scripts and webpages:

<script type="text/javascript">
var windowObjectReference = null; // global variable

function openRequestedPopup(url, windowName) {
  if(windowObjectReference == null || windowObjectReference.closed) {
    windowObjectReference = window.open(url, windowName,
           "resizable,scrollbars,status");
  } else {
    windowObjectReference.focus();
  };
}
</script>
 
(...)

<p><a
 href="http://www.spreadfirefox.com/"
 target="PromoteFirefoxWindow"
 onclick="openRequestedPopup(this.href, this.target); return false;"
 title="This link will create a new window or will re-use an already opened one"
>Promote Firefox adoption</a></p>

You can also make such function able to open only 1 secondary window and to reuse such single secondary window for other links in this manner:

<script type="text/javascript">
var windowObjectReference = null; // global variable
var PreviousUrl; /* global variable that will store the
                    url currently in the secondary window */

function openRequestedSinglePopup(url) {
  if(windowObjectReference == null || windowObjectReference.closed) {
    windowObjectReference = window.open(url, "SingleSecondaryWindowName",
         "resizable,scrollbars,status");
  } else if(PreviousUrl != url) {
    windowObjectReference = window.open(url, "SingleSecondaryWindowName",
      "resizable=yes,scrollbars=yes,status=yes");
    /* if the resource to load is different,
       then we load it in the already opened secondary window and then
       we bring such window back on top/in front of its parent window. */
    windowObjectReference.focus();
  } else {
    windowObjectReference.focus();
  };

  PreviousUrl = url;
  /* explanation: we store the current url in order to compare url
     in the event of another call of this function. */
}
</script>

(...)

<p><a
 href="http://www.spreadfirefox.com/"
 target="SingleSecondaryWindowName"
 onclick="openRequestedSinglePopup(this.href); return false;"
 title="This link will create a new window or will re-use an already opened one"
>Promote Firefox adoption</a></p>

<p><a
 href="http://www.mozilla.org/support/firefox/faq"
 target="SingleSecondaryWindowName"
 onclick="openRequestedSinglePopup(this.href); return false;"
 title="This link will create a new window or will re-use an already opened one"
>Firefox FAQ</a></p>

FAQ

How can I prevent the confirmation message asking the user whether they want to close the window?
You cannot. New windows not opened by javascript cannot as a rule be closed by JavaScript. The JavaScript Console in Mozilla-based browsers will report the warning message: "Scripts may not close windows that were not opened by script." Otherwise the history of URLs visited during the browser session would be lost.
More on the window.close() method
How can I bring back the window if it is minimized or behind another window?
First check for the existence of the window object reference of such window and if it exists and if it has not been closed, then use the focus() method. There is no other reliable way. You can examine an example explaining how to use the focus() method.
How do I force a maximized window?
You cannot. All browser manufacturers try to make the opening of new secondary windows noticed by users and noticeable by users to avoid confusion, to avoid disorienting users.
How do I turn off window resizability or remove toolbars?
You cannot force this. Users with Mozilla-based browsers have absolute control over window functionalities like resizability, scrollability and toolbars presence via user preferences in about:config. Since your users are the ones who are supposed to use such windows (and not you, being the web author), the best is to avoid interfering with their habits and preferences. We recommend to always set the resizability and scrollbars presence (if needed) to yes to insure accessibility to content and usability of windows. This is in the best interests of both the web author and the users.
How do I resize a window to fit its content?
You cannot reliably because the users can prevent the window from being resized by setting dom.disable_window_move_resize to true in about:config or by editing accordingly their user.js file.
In general, users usually disable moving and resizing of existing windows because allowing authors' scripts to do so has been abused overwhelmingly in the past and the rare scripts that do not abuse such feature are often wrong, inaccurate when resizing the window. 99% of all those scripts disable window resizability and disable scrollbars when in fact they should enable both of these features to allow a cautious and sane fallback mechanism if their calculations are wrong.
The window method sizeToContent() can also be disabled. Moving and resizing a window remotely on the user's screen via script will very often annoy the users, will disorient the user, and will be wrong at best. The web author expects to have full control of (and can decide about) every position and size aspects of the users' browser window ... which is simply not true.
How do I open a referenced resource of a link in a new tab? or in a specific tab?
To open a resource in a new tab see Tabbed browser. Some Code snippets are available. If you are using the SDK, tabs are handled a bit differently
K-meleon 1.1, a Mozilla-based browser, gives complete control and power to the user regarding how links are opened. Only the user can set his advanced preferences to do that. Some advanced extensions also give Mozilla and Firefox a lot of power over how referenced resources are loaded.
In a few years, the target property of the CSS3 hyperlink module may be implemented (if CSS3 Hyperlink module as it is right now is approved). And even if and when this happens, you can expect developers of browsers with tab-browsing to give the user entire veto power and full control over how links can open web pages. How to open a link should always be entirely under the control of the user.
How do I know whether a window I opened is still open?
You can test for the existence of the window object reference which is the returned value in case of success of the window.open() call and then verify that windowObjectReference.closed return value is false.
How can I tell when my window was blocked by a popup blocker?
With the built-in popup blockers, you have to check the return value of window.open(): it will be null if the window wasn't allowed to open. However, for most other popup blockers, there is no reliable way.
What is the JavaScript relationship between the main window and the secondary window?
The window.open() method gives a main window a reference to a secondary window; the opener property gives a secondary window a reference to its main window.
I cannot access the properties of the new secondary window. I always get an error in the javascript console saying "Error: uncaught exception: Permission denied to get property <property_name or method_name>. Why is that?
It is because of the cross-domain script security restriction (also referred as the "Same Origin Policy"). A script loaded in a window (or frame) from a distinct origin (domain name) cannot get nor set properties of another window (or frame) or the properties of any of its HTML objects coming from another distinct origin (domain name). Therefore, before executing a script targeting a secondary window, the browser in the main window will verify that the secondary window has the same domain name.
More reading on the cross-domain script security restriction: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/secu...me-origin.html

Usability issues

Avoid resorting to window.open()

Generally speaking, it is preferable to avoid resorting to window.open() for several reasons:

  • Most modern desktop browsers offer tab-browsing, and tab-capable browser users overall prefer opening new tabs than opening new windows in a majority of webpage situations.
  • Most modern browsers offers a popup-blocking feature.
  • Users can be using browser-built-in feature or extensions include opening a link in a new window or not, in the same window, in a new tab or not, in "background" or not. Coding carelessly to open new windows can no longer be assured of success, cannot succeed by force and, if it does, it will annoy a majority of users.
  • New windows can have menubar missing, scrollbars missing, status bar missing, window resizability disabled, etc.; new tabs cannot be missing those functionalities or toolbars (or at least, the toolbars that are present by default). Therefore, tab-browsing is preferred by a lot of users because the normal user-interface of the browser window they prefer is kept intact, remains stable.
  • Opening new windows, even with reduced features, uses considerably a lot of the user's system resources (cpu, RAM) and involves considerably a lot of coding in the source code (security management, memory management, various code branchings sometimes quite complex, window frame/chrome/toolbars building, window positioning and sizing, etc.). Opening new tabs is less demanding on the user's system resources (and faster to achieve) than opening new windows.

If you want to offer to open a link in a new window, then follow tested and recommendable usability and accessibility guidelines:

"javascript:" links break accessibility and usability of webpages in every browser.

  • "javascript:" pseudo-links become dysfunctional when javascript support is disabled or inexistent. Several corporations allow their employees to surf on the web but under strict security policies: no javascript enabled, no java, no activeX, no Flash. For various reasons (security, public access, text browsers, etc..), about 5% to 10% of users on the web surf with javascript disabled.
  • "javascript:" links will interfere with advanced features in tab-capable browsers: eg. middle-click on links, Ctrl+click on links, tab-browsing features in extensions, etc.
  • "javascript:" links will interfere with the process of indexing webpages by search engines.
  • "javascript:" links interfere with assistive technologies (e.g. voice browsers) and several web-aware applications (e.g. PDAs and mobile browsers).
  • "javascript:" links also interfere with "mouse gestures" features implemented in browsers.
  • Protocol scheme "javascript:" will be reported as an error by link validators and link checkers.

Further reading:

Never use <a href="#" onclick="window.open(...);">

Such pseudo-link also breaks accessibility of links. Always use a real URL for the href attribute value so that if javascript support is disabled or inexistent or if the user agent does not support opening of secondary window (like MS-Web TV, text browsers, etc), then such user agents will still be able to load the referenced resource according to its default mode of opening/handling a referenced resource. This form of code also interferes with advanced features in tab-capable browsers: eg. middle-click on links, Ctrl+click on links, Ctrl+Enter on links, "mouse gestures" features.

Identify links that will open new windows in a way that helps navigation for users by coding the title attribute of the link, by adding an icon at the end of the link or by coding the cursor accordingly.

The purpose is to warn users in advance of context changes to minimize confusion on the user's part: changing the current window or popping up new windows can be very disorienting to users (Back toolbar button is disabled).

"Users often don't notice that a new window has opened, especially if they are using a small monitor where the windows are maximized to fill up the screen. So a user who tries to return to the origin will be confused by a grayed out Back button."
quote from The Top Ten New Mistakes of Web Design: 2. Opening New Browser Windows, Jakob Nielsen, May 1999

When extreme changes in context are explicitly identified before they occur, then the users can determine if they wish to proceed or so they can be prepared for the change: not only they will not be confused or feel disoriented, but more experienced users can better decide how to open such links (in a new window or not, in the same window, in a new tab or not, in "background" or not).

References

Example "New Window" Icons & Cursors
New window icon from yahoo.com New window icon from microsoft.com New window icon from webaim.org New window icon from sun.com
New window icon from bbc.co.uk New window icon from Accessible Internet Solutions New window icon from accessify.com New window icon from webstyleguide.com
New window icon from an unknown source New window icon from an unknown source New window icon from an unknown source New window icon from gtalbot.org
New window cursor from draig.de New window cursor from mithgol.ru

Always use the target attribute

If javascript support is disabled or non-existent, then the user agent will create a secondary window accordingly or will render the referenced resource according to its handling of the target attribute: e.g. some user agents that cannot create new windows, like MS Web TV, will fetch the referenced resource and append it at the end of the current document. The goal and the idea is to try to provide - not impose - to the user a way to open the referenced resource, a mode of opening the link. Your code should not interfere with the features of the browser at the disposal of the user and your code should not interfere with the final decision resting with the user.

Do not use target="_blank"

Always provide a meaningful name to your target attribute and try to reuse such target attribute in your page so that a click on another link may load the referenced resource in an already created and rendered window (therefore speeding up the process for the user) and therefore justifying the reason (and user system resources, time spent) for creating a secondary window in the first place. Using a single target attribute value and reusing it in links is much more user resources friendly as it only creates one single secondary window, which is recycled. On the other hand, using "_blank" as the target attribute value will create several new and unnamed windows on the user's desktop that cannot be recycled, reused. In any case, if your code is well done, it should not interfere with the user's final choice but rather merely offer him more choices, more ways to open links and more power to the tool he's using (a browser).

Glossary

Opener window, parent window, main window, first window
Terms often used to describe or to identify the same window. It is the window from which a new window will be created. It is the window on which the user clicked a link that leads to the creation of another, new window.
Sub-window, child window, secondary window, second window
Terms often used to describe or to identify the same window. It is the new window that was created.
Unrequested popup windows
Script-initiated windows opening automatically without the user's consent.

Specification

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of 'Window.open()' in that specification.
Living Standard
CSS Object Model (CSSOM) View Module
The definition of 'The features argument to the open() method' in that specification.
Working Draft Defines the effect of the features argument

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
openChrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 4Opera Full support 3Safari Full support 1WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0
One Window.open() call per eventChrome ? Edge ? Firefox Full support 65IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Firefox Android Full support 65Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
outerHeight and outerWidth features
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox No support 1¬†‚ÄĒ 80IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.

Notes

Most modern browsers (listed below) don't allow web content to control the visibility of UI parts separately.

  • Firefox 76 or newer
  • Google Chrome
  • Safari
  • Chromium Edge

UI-related items of windowFeatures are used as a condition to whether opening a popup or a new tab, or a new window, and UI parts visibility of each of them is fixed.

The condition is implementation-depepdent and not guaranteed to be stable.

Note on scrollbars

When content overflows window viewport dimensions, then scrollbar(s) (or some scrolling mechanism) are necessary to ensure that content can be accessed by users. Content can overflow window dimensions for several reasons that are outside the control of web authors:

  • user resizes the window
  • user increases the text size of fonts via View/Text Zoom (%) menuitem in Mozilla or View/Text Size/Increase or Decrease in Firefox
  • user sets a minimum font size for pages that is bigger than the font-size the web author requested. People over 40 years old or with particular viewing habit or reading preference often set a minimal font size in Mozilla-based browsers.
  • web author is not aware of default margin (and/or border and/or padding) values applying to root element or body node in various browsers and various browser versions
  • user uses an user stylesheet (userContent.css in Mozilla-based browsers) for his viewing habits that increases document box dimensions (margin, padding, default font size)
  • user can customize individually the size (height or width) of most toolbars via operating system settings. E.g. window resizing borders, height of browser titlebar, menubar, scrollbars, font size are entirely customizable by the user in Windows XP operating system. These toolbars dimensions can also be set via browser themes and skins or by operating system themes
  • web author is unaware that the user default browser window has custom toolbar(s) for specific purpose(s); e.g.: prefs bar, web developer bar, accessibility toolbar, popup blocking and search toolbar, multi-feature toolbar, etc.
  • user uses assistive technologies or add-on features that modify the operating system's work area for applications: e.g. MS-Magnifier
  • user repositions and/or resizes directly or indirectly the operating system's work area for applications: e.g. user resizes the Windows taskbar, user positions the Windows taskbar on the left side (arabic language based) or right side (Hebrew language), user has a permanent MS-Office quick launch toolbar, etc.
  • some operating system (Mac OS X) forces presence of toolbars that can then fool the web author's anticipations, calculations of the effective dimensions of the browser window

Note on position and dimension error correction

Requested position and requested dimension values in the features list will not be honored and will be corrected if any of such requested value does not allow the entire browser window to be rendered within the work area for applications of the user's operating system. No part of the new window can be initially positioned offscreen. This is by default in all Mozilla-based browser releases.

MSIE 6 SP2 has a similar error correction mechanism but it is not activated by default in all security levels: a security setting can disable such error correction mechanism.

Tutorials

References

Others