<ruby>

The HTML <ruby> element represents small annotations that are rendered above, below, or next to base text, usually used for showing the pronunciation of East Asian characters. It can also be used for annotating other kinds of text, but this usage is less common.

The term ruby originated as a unit of measurement used by typesetters, representing the smallest size that text can be printed on newsprint while remaining legible.

Content categories Flow content, phrasing content, palpable content.
Permitted content Phrasing content.
Tag omission None, both the starting and ending tag are mandatory.
Permitted parents Any element that accepts phrasing content.
Implicit ARIA role No corresponding role
Permitted ARIA roles Any
DOM interface HTMLElement

Attributes

This element only includes the global attributes.

Examples

Example 1: Character

<ruby>
  漢 <rp>(</rp><rt>Kan</rt><rp>)</rp>
  字 <rp>(</rp><rt>ji</rt><rp>)</rp>
</ruby>

Example 2: Word

<ruby>
  明日 <rp>(</rp><rt>Ashita</rt><rp>)</rp>
</ruby>

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of '<ruby>' in that specification.
Living Standard
HTML5
The definition of '<ruby>' in that specification.
Recommendation

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
rubyChrome Full support 5Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 38IE Full support 5Opera Full support 15Safari Full support 5WebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 38Opera Android Full support 14Safari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support

See also