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The HTML <ruby> element represents a ruby annotation. Ruby annotations are for showing pronunciation of East Asian characters.

Content categories Flow content, phrasing content, palpable content.
Permitted content Phrasing content.
Tag omission None, both the starting and ending tag are mandatory.
Permitted parents Any element that accepts phrasing content.
Permitted ARIA roles Any
DOM interface HTMLElement


This element only includes the global attributes.


Example 1: Character

  漢 <rp>(</rp><rt>Kan</rt><rp>)</rp>
  字 <rp>(</rp><rt>ji</rt><rp>)</rp>

Example 2: Word

  明日 <rp>(</rp><rt>Ashita</rt><rp>)</rp>


Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of '<ruby>' in that specification.
Living Standard  
The definition of '<ruby>' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support5 Yes385155
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic support Yes Yes Yes3815 Yes ?

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

 Last updated by: yuheiy,