使用 CSS transitions

这是一个实验中的功能
此功能某些浏览器尚在开发中,请参考浏览器兼容性表格以得到在不同浏览器中适合使用的前缀。由于该功能对应的标准文档可能被重新修订,所以在未来版本的浏览器中该功能的语法和行为可能随之改变。

当 CSS 属性发生变化时, CSS transition 能控制其变化的动画速率。 其可以让属性变化成为一个持续一段时间的过程,而不是立即生效的。比如,将一个元素的颜色从白色改为黑色,通常这个改变是立即生效的,使用 CSS transitions 后该元素的颜色将逐渐从白色变为黑色,按照一定的曲线速率变化。这个过程可以自定义。

通常将两个状态之间的过渡称为隐式过渡(implicit transitions),因为开始与结束之间的状态由浏览器决定。

A CSS transition tells the browsder to draw the intermediate states between the initial and final states, showing the user a smooth transitions.

CSS transitions 可以决定哪些属性发生动画效果 (明确地列出这些属性),何时开始 (设置 delay),持续多久 (设置 duration) 以及如何动画 (定义timing funtion,比如匀速地或先快后慢)。

Note: transition 可以不用厂商前缀,不过鉴于标准刚刚稳定,对于基于 Webkit的浏览器仍然需要厂商前缀。如果想兼容旧版本的浏览器那么也需要厂商前缀(例如Firefox 15 及之前版本, Opera 12 及之前版本)。详情见本页底部的兼容性表格。

哪些 CSS 属性可以动画?

网页制作者可以定义哪个属性以哪种方式动画,这样能制作出复杂的过渡。因为有些属性动画无意义,所以 可动画属性列表 是一个有限集合。

Note: 可动画的属性集将有变动,开发者应关注。

auto 值常常较复杂,规范指出不要在它上动画。一些用户代理,比如基于 Gecko 的,遵循这点;一些,比如基于 WebKit的,没有这么严格限制。在 auto 上动画结果可能不可预期,这取决于浏览器及其版本,应当避免使用。

同时应当留意这种情形,在插入元素(如 .appendChild())或改变属性 display: none 后立即使用过渡, 元素将视为没有开始状态,始终处于结束状态。简单的解决办法,改变属性前用 window.setTimeout() 延迟几毫秒。

多个属性一起动画示例

HTML 内容

<body>
    <p>盒子的多个属性一起动画: width, height, background-color, transform. 将光标悬停在盒子上查看动画。</p>
    <div class="box"></div>
</body>

CSS 内容

.box {
    border-style: solid;
    border-width: 1px;
    display: block;
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: #0000FF;
    -webkit-transition:width 2s, height 2s, 
        background-color 2s, -webkit-transform 2s;
    transition:width 2s, height 2s, background-color 2s, transform 2s;
}
.box:hover {
    background-color: #FFCCCC;
    width:200px;
    height:200px;
    -webkit-transform:rotate(180deg);
    transform:rotate(180deg);
}

定义过渡

CSS 过渡 由简写属性 transition 定义是最好的方式,可以避免属性值列表长度不一,节省调试时间。

也可以用下面子属性来控制过渡的各部分:

(注意下面示例中过渡无限循环是为了说明例子,过渡只是从开始到结束变化,如果需要循环,查看 animation 。)

transition-property
指定哪个或哪些 CSS 属性用于过渡。只有指定的属性才会在过渡中发生动画,其它属性仍如通常那样瞬间变化。
transition-duration
指定过渡的时长。或者为所有属性指定一个值,或者指定多个值,为每个属性指定不同的时长。

transition-duration: 0.5s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:0.5s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    transition-duration:0.5s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
.box1{
    transform: rotate(270deg);
    -webkit-transform: rotate(270deg);
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:0.5s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transformv color;
    transition-duration:0.5s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-duration: 1s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top -webkit-transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:1s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform color;
    transition-duration:1s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
.box1{
    transform: rotate(270deg);
    -webkit-transform: rotate(270deg);
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top -webkit-transform transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:1s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    transition-duration:1s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-duration: 2s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
.box1{
    transform: rotate(270deg);
    -webkit-transform: rotate(270deg);
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-duration: 4s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:4s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    transition-duration:4s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
.box1{
    transform: rotate(270deg);
    -webkit-transform: rotate(270deg);
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:4s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top transform -webkit-transform color;
    transition-duration:4s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);
transition-timing-function
指定一个函数,定义属性值怎么变化。缓动函数 Timing functions 定义属性如何计算。多数 timing functions 由四点定义一个 bezier 曲线。也可以从 Easing Functions Cheat Sheet 选择缓动效果。

transition-timing-function: ease

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: ease;
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: ease;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-timing-function: linear

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-timing-function: step-end

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: step-end;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: step-end;
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: step-end;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: step-end;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-timing-function: steps(4, end)

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: steps(4, end);
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: steps(4, end);
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: steps(4, end);
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-timing-function: steps(4, end);
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);
transition-delay
指定延迟,即属性开始变化时与过渡开始发生时之间的时长。

transition-delay: 0.5s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:0.5s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:0.5s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
     -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:0.5s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:0.5s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-delay: 1s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
     -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:1s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:1s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:1s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:1s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-delay: 2s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:2s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:2s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: linear;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:2s;
    transition-timing-function: linear;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

transition-delay: 4s

 <div class="parent">
  <div class="box">Lorem</div>
</div>
  
.parent { width: 250px; height:125px;}
.box {
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    background-color: red;
    font-size: 20px;
    left: 0px;
    top: 0px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:4s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:4s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
.box1{
    width: 50px;
    height: 50px;
    background-color: blue;
    color: yellow;
    font-size: 18px;
    left: 150px;
    top:25px;
    position:absolute;
    -webkit-transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    -webkit-transition-duration:2s;
    -webkit-transition-delay:4s;
    -webkit-transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
    transition-property: width height background-color font-size left top color;
    transition-duration:2s;
    transition-delay:4s;
    transition-timing-function: ease-in-out;
}
function updateTransition() {
  var el = document.querySelector("div.box");
   
  if (el) {
    el.className = "box1";
  } else {
    el = document.querySelector("div.box1");
    el.className = "box";
  }
   
  return el;
}

var intervalID = window.setInterval(updateTransition, 7000);

简写语法:

div {
    transition: <property> <duration> <timing-function> <delay>;
}

检测过渡是否完成

当过渡完成时触发一个事件,在符合标准的浏览器下,这个事件是 transitionend, 在 WebKit 下是 webkitTransitionEnd. 详情查看页面底部的兼容性表格。 transitionend 事件提供两个属性:

propertyName
字符串,指示已完成过渡的属性。
elapsedTime
浮点数,指示当触发这个事件时过渡已运行的时间(秒)。这个值不受 transition-delay 影响。

照例可以用  element.addEventListener() 方法来监听这个事件:

el.addEventListener("transitionend", updateTransition, true);
Note: 如果取消了过渡则不会触发 transitionend 事件,因为在过渡完成前动画的属性值改变了。

当属性值列表长度不一致时

transition-property 的值列表长度为标准,如果某个属性值列表长度短于它的,则重复其值以长度一致, 例如:

div {
  transition-property: opacity, left, top, height;
  transition-duration: 3s, 5s;
}

将按下面这样处理:

div {
  transition-property: opacity, left, top, height;
  transition-duration: 3s, 5s, 3s, 5s;
}

类似地,如果某个属性的值列表长于 transition-property 的,将被截短。 例如:

div {
  transition-property: opacity, left;
  transition-duration: 3s, 5s, 2s, 1s;
}

将按下面这样处理:

div {
  transition-property: opacity, left;
  transition-duration: 3s, 5s;
}

简单例子

这个例子实现这样的效果:4s 过渡改变字体大小,2s 延迟——在元素上鼠标悬停时与开始动画效果之间:

#delay1 {
  position: relative;
  transition-property: font-size;
  transition-duration: 4s;
  transition-delay: 2s;
  font-size: 14px;
}

#delay1:hover {
  transition-property: font-size;
  transition-duration: 4s;
  transition-delay: 2s;
  font-size: 36px;
}

高亮菜单过渡效果

CSS 的一个常用地方是当鼠标悬停在菜单上时高亮此菜单,使用 transition 效果更佳。

HTML 内容

<div class="sidebar">
  <p><a class="menuButton" href="home">Home</a></p>
  <p><a class="menuButton" href="about">About</a></p>
  <p><a class="menuButton" href="contact">Contact Us</a></p>
  <p><a class="menuButton" href="links">Links</a></p>
</div>

CSS 内容

.menuButton {
  position: relative;
  transition-property: background-color, color;
  transition-duration: 1s;
  transition-timing-function: ease-out;
  text-align: left;
  background-color: grey;
  left: 5px;
  top: 5px;
  height: 26px;
  color: white;
  border-color: black;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 20px;
  text-decoration: none;
  box-shadow: 2px 2px 1px black;
  padding: 2px 4px;
  border: solid 1px black;
}

.menuButton:hover {
  position: relative;
  transition-property: background-color, color;
  transition-duration: 1s;
  transition-timing-function: ease-out;
  background-color:white;
  color:black;
  box-shadow: 2px 2px 1px black;
}

这个 CSS 设置了菜单的外观,在:hover时,菜单里的元素的文字、颜色及背景色都发生了变化。

transition 让 JavaScript 效果更平滑

transition 是非常好的工具,可以让 JavaScript 效果平滑而不用修改 JavaScript。 看下面例子。

<p>随便点击某处来移动球</p>
<div id="foo"></div>

使用 JavaScript 将球移动到一个位置 :

var f = document.getElementById('foo');
document.addEventListener('click', function(ev){
    f.style.left = (ev.clientX-25)+'px';
    f.style.top = (ev.clientY-25)+'px';
},false);

使用CSS 来平滑移动,只用简单地添加一个过渡 :

p {
  padding-left: 60px;

#foo {
  border-radius: 50px;
  width: 50px;
  height: 50px;
  background: #c00;
  position: absolute;
  top: 0;
  left: 0;
  transition:  all 1s;
}

演示: http://jsfiddle.net/RwtHn/5/

规范

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transitions Working Draft Initial specification.

浏览器兼容性

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support 1.0 -webkit
26.0
4.0 (2.0) -moz
16.0 (16.0)
10 10.5 -o
12.10
3.2 -webkit
transitionend event 1.0 as webkitTransitionEnd
26.0
4.0 (2.0) 10 10.5 as oTransitionEnd
12 as otransitionend
12.10 as transitionend
3.2 as webkitTransitionEnd
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 2.1 4.0 (2.0) -moz
16.0 (16.0)
? 10 -o
12.10
3.2
transitionend event 2.1 as webkitTransitionEnd 4.0 (2.0) ? 10 as oTransitionEnd
12 as otransitionend
12.10 as transitionend
3.2 as webkitTransitionEnd

另见

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