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BigInt is a built-in object that provides a way to represent whole numbers larger than 253 - 1, which is the largest number JavaScript can reliably represent with the Number primitive. BigInt can be used for arbitrarily large integers.

BigInt is currently in stage 3 of the ECMAScript specification.

When it makes it to stage 4 of the draft, which is the final specification, BigInt will become the second built-in numeric type in JavaScript.

BigInt is slated to become the first new primitive type added to JavaScript since Symbol in ES2015.

Syntax

BigInt(value);

Parameters

value
The numeric value of the object being created. May be a string or an integer.

Note: BigInt() is not used with the new operator.

Description

A BigInt is created by appending n to the end of an integer literal — 10n — or by calling the function BigInt().

const theBiggestInt = 9007199254740991n;

const alsoHuge = BigInt(9007199254740991);
// ↪ 9007199254740991n

const hugeString = BigInt("9007199254740991");
// ↪ 9007199254740991n

const hugeHex = BigInt("0x1fffffffffffff");
// ↪ 9007199254740991n

const hugeBin = BigInt("0b11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111");
// ↪ 9007199254740991n

BigInt is similar to Number in some ways, but also differs in a few key matters — it cannot be used with methods in the built-in Math object and cannot be mixed with instances of Number in operations; they must be coerced to the same type. Be careful coercing values back and forth, however, as the precision of a BigInt may be lost when it is coerced to a Number.

Type information

When tested against typeof, a BigInt will give "bigint":

typeof 1n === 'bigint'; // true
typeof BigInt('1') === 'bigint'; // true

When wrapped in an Object, a BigInt will be considered as a normal "object" type:

typeof Object(1n) === 'object'; // true

Operators

The following operators may be used with BigInts (or object-wrapped BigInts): +, *, -, **, %. Bitwise operators are supported as well, except >>> (zero-fill right shift) as all BigInts are signed. Also unsupported is the unary operator (+), in order to not break asm.js.

const previousMaxSafe = BigInt(Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER);
// ↪ 9007199254740991

const maxPlusOne = previousMaxSafe + 1n;
// ↪ 9007199254740992n
 
const theFuture = previousMaxSafe + 2n;
// ↪ 9007199254740993n, this works now!

const multi = previousMaxSafe * 2n;
// ↪ 18014398509481982n

const subtr = multi – 10n;
// ↪ 18014398509481972n

const mod = multi % 10n;
// ↪ 2n

const bigN = 2n ** 54n;
// ↪ 18014398509481984n

bigN * -1n
// ↪ –18014398509481984n

The / operator also works as expected with whole numbers. However, since these are BigInts and not BigDecimals, this operation will round towards 0, which is to say, it will not return any fractional digits.

An operation with a fractional result will be truncated when used with a BigInt.

const expected = 4n / 2n;
// ↪ 2n

const rounded = 5n / 2n;
// ↪ 2n, not 2.5n

Comparisons

A BigInt is not strictly equal to a Number, but it is loosely so:

0n === 0
// ↪ false

0n == 0
// ↪ true

A Number and a BigInt may be compared as usual:

1n < 2
// ↪ true

2n > 1
// ↪ true

2 > 2
// ↪ false

2n > 2
// ↪ false

2n >= 2
// ↪ true

They may be mixed in arrays and sorted:

const mixed = [4n, 6, -12n, 10, 4, 0, 0n];
// ↪  [4n, 6, -12n, 10, 4, 0, 0n]

mixed.sort();
// ↪ [-12n, 0, 0n, 4n, 4, 6, 10]

Note that comparisons with Object-wrapped BigInts act as with other objects, only indicating equality when the same object instance is compared:

0n === Object(0n); // false
Object(0n) === Object(0n); // false

const o = Object(0n);
o === o // true

Conditionals

A BigInt behaves like a Number in cases where it is converted to a Boolean: via the Boolean function; when used with logical operators Logical Operators ||, &&, and !; or within a conditional test like an if statement.

if (0n) {
  console.log('Hello from the if!');
} else {
  console.log('Hello from the else!');
}

// ↪ "Hello from the else!"

0n || 12n
// ↪ 12n

0n && 12n
// ↪ 0n

Boolean(0n)
// ↪ false

Boolean(12n)
// ↪ true

!12n
// ↪ false

!0n
// ↪ true

Methods

BigInt.asIntN()
Wraps a BigInt value to a signed integer between -2width-1 and 2width-1-1.
BigInt.asUintN()
Wraps a BigInt value to an unsigned integer between 0 and 2width-1.

Properties

BigInt.prototype
Allows the addition of properties to a BigInt object.

BigInt instances

All BigInt instances inherit from BigInt.prototype. The prototype object of the BigInt constructor can be modified to affect all BigInt instances.

Methods

BigInt.prototype.toLocaleString()
Returns a string with a language-sensitive representation of this number. Overrides the Object.prototype.toLocaleString() method.
BigInt.prototype.toString()
Returns a string representing the specified object in the specified radix (base). Overrides the Object.prototype.toString() method.
BigInt.prototype.valueOf()
Returns the primitive value of the specified object. Overrides the Object.prototype.valueOf() method.

Usage recommendations

Coercion

Because coercing between Number and BigInt can lead to loss of precision, it is recommended to only use BigInt when values greater than 253 are reasonably expected and not to coerce between the two types.

Cryptography

The operations supported on BigInts are not constant time. BigInt is therefore unsuitable for use in cryptography.

Use within JSON

Using JSON.stringify() with any BigInt value will raise a TypeError as BigInt values aren't serialized in JSON by default. However, you can implement your own toJSON method if needed:

BigInt.prototype.toJSON = function() { return this.toString(); }

Instead of throwing, JSON.stringify now produces a string like this:

JSON.stringify(BigInt(1));
// '"1"'

Examples

Calculating Primes

function isPrime(p) {
  for (let i = 2n; i * i <= p; i++) {
    if (p % i === 0n) return false;
  }
  return true;
}

// Takes a BigInt as an argument and returns a BigInt
function nthPrime(nth) {
  let maybePrime = 2n;
  let prime = 0n;
  
  while (nth >= 0n) {
    if (isPrime(maybePrime)) {
      nth -= 1n;
      prime = maybePrime;
    }
    maybePrime += 1n;
  }
  
  return prime;
}

nthPrime(20n)
// ↪ 73n

Specifications

Specification Status
BigInt Stage 3

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobileServer
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
BigIntChrome Full support 67Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 68IE No support NoOpera Full support 54Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 67Chrome Android Full support 67Firefox Android Full support 68Opera Android Full support 48Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs Full support 10.4.0
asIntNChrome Full support 67Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 68IE No support NoOpera Full support 54Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 67Chrome Android Full support 67Firefox Android Full support 68Opera Android Full support 48Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs Full support 10.4.0
asUintNChrome Full support 67Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 68IE No support NoOpera Full support 54Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 67Chrome Android Full support 67Firefox Android Full support 68Opera Android Full support 48Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs Full support 10.4.0
prototypeChrome Full support 67Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 68IE No support NoOpera Full support 54Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 67Chrome Android Full support 67Firefox Android Full support 68Opera Android Full support 48Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs Full support 10.4.0
toLocaleStringChrome Full support 67Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 68IE No support NoOpera Full support 54Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 67Chrome Android Full support 67Firefox Android Full support 68Opera Android Full support 48Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs Full support 10.4.0
toStringChrome Full support 67Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 68IE No support NoOpera Full support 54Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 67Chrome Android Full support 67Firefox Android Full support 68Opera Android Full support 48Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs Full support 10.4.0
valueOfChrome Full support 67Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 68IE No support NoOpera Full support 54Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 67Chrome Android Full support 67Firefox Android Full support 68Opera Android Full support 48Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs Full support 10.4.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
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See also

Document Tags and Contributors

Last updated by: kaykayehnn,