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    String.prototype.charCodeAt()

    Summary

    The charCodeAt() method returns the numeric Unicode value of the character at the given index (except for unicode codepoints > 0x10000).

    Syntax

    str.charCodeAt(index)

    Parameters

    index
    An integer greater than or equal to 0 and less than the length of the string; if it is not a number, it defaults to 0.

    Description

    Unicode code points range from 0 to 1114111 (0x10FFFF). The first 128 Unicode code points are a direct match of the ASCII character encoding. For information on Unicode, see the JavaScript Guide.

    Note that charCodeAt() will always return a value that is less than 65536. This is because the higher code points are represented by a pair of (lower valued) "surrogate" pseudo-characters which are used to comprise the real character. Because of this, in order to examine or reproduce the full character for individual characters of value 65536 and above, for such characters, it is necessary to retrieve not only charCodeAt(i), but also charCodeAt(i+1) (as if examining/reproducing a string with two letters). See example 2 and 3 below.

    charCodeAt() returns NaN if the given index is not greater than 0 or is greater than the length of the string.

    Backward compatibilty: In historic versions (like JavaScript 1.2) the charCodeAt() method returns a number indicating the ISO-Latin-1 codeset value of the character at the given index. The ISO-Latin-1 codeset ranges from 0 to 255. The first 0 to 127 are a direct match of the ASCII character set.

    Examples

    Example: Using charCodeAt()

    The following example returns 65, the Unicode value for A.

    'ABC'.charCodeAt(0); // returns 65
    

    Example: Fixing charCodeAt() to handle non-Basic-Multilingual-Plane characters if their presence earlier in the string is unknown

    This version might be used in for loops and the like when it is unknown whether non-BMP characters exist before the specified index position.

    function fixedCharCodeAt(str, idx) {
      // ex. fixedCharCodeAt('\uD800\uDC00', 0); // 65536
      // ex. fixedCharCodeAt('\uD800\uDC00', 1); // false
      idx = idx || 0;
      var code = str.charCodeAt(idx);
      var hi, low;
      
      // High surrogate (could change last hex to 0xDB7F to treat high
      // private surrogates as single characters)
      if (0xD800 <= code && code <= 0xDBFF) {
        hi = code;
        low = str.charCodeAt(idx + 1);
        if (isNaN(low)) {
          throw 'High surrogate not followed by low surrogate in fixedCharCodeAt()';
        }
        return ((hi - 0xD800) * 0x400) + (low - 0xDC00) + 0x10000;
      }
      if (0xDC00 <= code && code <= 0xDFFF) { // Low surrogate
        // We return false to allow loops to skip this iteration since should have
        // already handled high surrogate above in the previous iteration
        return false;
        /*hi = str.charCodeAt(idx - 1);
        low = code;
        return ((hi - 0xD800) * 0x400) + (low - 0xDC00) + 0x10000;*/
      }
      return code;
    }
    

    Example: Fixing charCodeAt() to handle non-Basic-Multilingual-Plane characters if their presence earlier in the string is known

    function knownCharCodeAt(str, idx) {
      str += '';
      var code,
          end = str.length;
    
      var surrogatePairs = /[\uD800-\uDBFF][\uDC00-\uDFFF]/g;
      while ((surrogatePairs.exec(str)) != null) {
        var li = surrogatePairs.lastIndex;
        if (li - 2 < idx) {
          idx++;
        }
        else {
          break;
        }
      }
    
      if (idx >= end || idx < 0) {
        return NaN;
      }
    
      code = str.charCodeAt(idx);
    
      var hi, low;
      if (0xD800 <= code && code <= 0xDBFF) {
        hi = code;
        low = str.charCodeAt(idx + 1);
        // Go one further, since one of the "characters" is part of a surrogate pair
        return ((hi - 0xD800) * 0x400) + (low - 0xDC00) + 0x10000;
      }
      return code;
    }
    

    Specifications

    Specification Status Comment
    ECMAScript 1st Edition. Standard Initial definition. Implemented in JavaScript 1.2.
    ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
    The definition of 'String.prototype.charCodeAt' in that specification.
    Standard  
    ECMAScript 6 (ECMA-262)
    The definition of 'String.prototype.charCodeAt' in that specification.
    Release Candidate  

    Browser compatibility

    Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
    Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)

    See also

    Document Tags and Contributors

    Last updated by: Mingun,
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