Element.classList

Element.classList는 엘리먼트의 클래스 속성의 컬렉션인 활성 DOMTokenList를 반환하는 읽기 전용 프로퍼티이다.

classList 사용은 공백으로 구분된 문자열인 element.className을 통해 엘리먼트의 클래스 목록에 접근하는 방식을 대체하는 간편한 방법이다.

구문

const elementClasses = elementNodeReference.classList;

elementClasseselementNodeReference의 클래스 속성을 나타내는 DOMTokenList이다. 만약 클래스 속성이 설정되어 있지 않거나 비어있다면 elementClasses.length0을 반환한다. element.classList 그 자체는 읽기 전용 프로퍼티지만 add()remove() 메서드를 이용하여 변형할 수 있다.

메서드

add( String [, String [, ...]] )
지정한 클래스 값을 추가한다. 만약 추가하려는 클래스가 엘리먼트의 class 속성에 이미 존재한다면 무시한다.
remove( String [, String [, ...]] )
지정한 클래스 값을 제거한다.
노트: 존재하지 않는 클래스를 제거하는 것은 에러를 발생시키지 않습니다.
item( Number )
콜렉션의 인덱스를 이용하여 클래스 값을 반환한다.
toggle( String [, force] )
하나의 인수만 있을 때: 클래스 값을 토글링한다. 즉, 클래스가 존재한다면 제거하고 false를 반환하며, 존재하지 않으면 클래스를 추가하고 true를 반환한다.
두번째 인수가 있을 때: 두번째 인수가 true로 평가되면 지정한 클래스 값을 추가하고 false로 평가되면 제거한다.
contains( String )
지정한 클래스 값이 엘리먼트의 class 속성에 존재하는지 확인한다.
replace( oldClass, newClass )
존재하는 클래스를 새로운 클래스로 교체한다.

예제

const div = document.createElement('div');
div.className = 'foo';

// our starting state: <div class="foo"></div>
console.log(div.outerHTML);

// use the classList API to remove and add classes
div.classList.remove("foo");
div.classList.add("anotherclass");

// <div class="anotherclass"></div>
console.log(div.outerHTML);

// if visible is set remove it, otherwise add it
div.classList.toggle("visible");

// add/remove visible, depending on test conditional, i less than 10
div.classList.toggle("visible", i < 10 );

console.log(div.classList.contains("foo"));

// add or remove multiple classes
div.classList.add("foo", "bar", "baz");
div.classList.remove("foo", "bar", "baz");

// add or remove multiple classes using spread syntax
const cls = ["foo", "bar"];
div.classList.add(...cls); 
div.classList.remove(...cls);

// replace class "foo" with class "bar"
div.classList.replace("foo", "bar");

파이어폭스 26 이전의 버전에서는 add/remove/toggle 메서드에서 여러 인수의 사용을 구현하지 않았다. https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=814014 링크를 참조하라.

폴리필

The legacy onpropertychange event can be used to create a living classList mockup thanks to a Element.prototype.className property that fires the specified event once it is changed.

The following polyfill for both classList and DOMTokenList ensures full compliance (coverage) for all standard methods and properties of Element.prototype.classList for IE10-IE11 browsers plus nearly compliant behavior for IE 6-9. Check it out:

// 1. String.prototype.trim polyfill
if (!"".trim) String.prototype.trim = function(){ return this.replace(/^[\s]+|[\s]+$/g, ''); };
(function(window){"use strict"; // prevent global namespace pollution
if(!window.DOMException) (DOMException = function(reason){this.message = reason}).prototype = new Error;
var wsRE = /[\11\12\14\15\40]/, wsIndex = 0, checkIfValidClassListEntry = function(O, V) {
  if (V === "") throw new DOMException(
    "Failed to execute '" + O + "' on 'DOMTokenList': The token provided must not be empty." );
  if((wsIndex=V.search(wsRE))!==-1) throw new DOMException("Failed to execute '"+O+"' on 'DOMTokenList': " +
    "The token provided ('"+V[wsIndex]+"') contains HTML space characters, which are not valid in tokens.");
}
// 2. Implement the barebones DOMTokenList livelyness polyfill
if (typeof DOMTokenList !== "function") (function(window){
    var document = window.document, Object = window.Object, hasOwnProp = Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty;
    var defineProperty = Object.defineProperty, allowTokenListConstruction = 0, skipPropChange = 0;
    function DOMTokenList(){
        if (!allowTokenListConstruction) throw TypeError("Illegal constructor"); // internally let it through
    }
    DOMTokenList.prototype.toString = DOMTokenList.prototype.toLocaleString = function(){return this.value};
    DOMTokenList.prototype.add = function(){
        a: for(var v=0, argLen=arguments.length,val="",ele=this[" uCL"],proto=ele[" uCLp"]; v!==argLen; ++v) {
            val = arguments[v] + "", checkIfValidClassListEntry("add", val);
            for (var i=0, Len=proto.length, resStr=val; i !== Len; ++i)
                if (this[i] === val) continue a; else resStr += " " + this[i];
            this[Len] = val, proto.length += 1, proto.value = resStr;
        }
        skipPropChange = 1, ele.className = proto.value, skipPropChange = 0;
    };
    DOMTokenList.prototype.remove = function(){
        for (var v=0, argLen=arguments.length,val="",ele=this[" uCL"],proto=ele[" uCLp"]; v !== argLen; ++v) {
            val = arguments[v] + "", checkIfValidClassListEntry("remove", val);
            for (var i=0, Len=proto.length, resStr="", is=0; i !== Len; ++i)
                if(is){ this[i-1]=this[i] }else{ if(this[i] !== val){ resStr+=this[i]+" "; }else{ is=1; } }
            if (!is) continue;
            delete this[Len], proto.length -= 1, proto.value = resStr;
        }
        skipPropChange = 1, ele.className = proto.value, skipPropChange = 0;
    };
    window.DOMTokenList = DOMTokenList;
    function whenPropChanges(){
        var evt = window.event, prop = evt.propertyName;
        if ( !skipPropChange && (prop==="className" || (prop==="classList" && !defineProperty)) ) {
            var target = evt.srcElement, protoObjProto = target[" uCLp"], strval = "" + target[prop];
            var tokens=strval.trim().split(wsRE), resTokenList=target[prop==="classList"?" uCL":"classList"];
            var oldLen = protoObjProto.length;
            a: for(var cI = 0, cLen = protoObjProto.length = tokens.length, sub = 0; cI !== cLen; ++cI){
                for(var innerI=0; innerI!==cI; ++innerI) if(tokens[innerI]===tokens[cI]) {sub++; continue a;}
                resTokenList[cI-sub] = tokens[cI];
            }
            for (var i=cLen-sub; i < oldLen; ++i) delete resTokenList[i]; //remove trailing indexs
            if(prop !== "classList") return;
            skipPropChange = 1, target.classList = resTokenList, target.className = strval;
            skipPropChange = 0, resTokenList.length = tokens.length - sub;
        }
    }
    function polyfillClassList(ele){
        if (!ele || !("innerHTML" in ele)) throw TypeError("Illegal invocation");
        ele.detachEvent( "onpropertychange", whenPropChanges ); // prevent duplicate handler infinite loop
        allowTokenListConstruction = 1;
        try{ function protoObj(){} protoObj.prototype = new DOMTokenList(); }
        finally { allowTokenListConstruction = 0 }
        var protoObjProto = protoObj.prototype, resTokenList = new protoObj();
        a: for(var toks=ele.className.trim().split(wsRE), cI=0, cLen=toks.length, sub=0; cI !== cLen; ++cI){
            for (var innerI=0; innerI !== cI; ++innerI) if (toks[innerI] === toks[cI]) { sub++; continue a; }
            this[cI-sub] = toks[cI];
        }
        protoObjProto.length = cLen-sub, protoObjProto.value = ele.className, protoObjProto[" uCL"] = ele;
        if (defineProperty) { defineProperty(ele, "classList", { // IE8 & IE9 allow defineProperty on the DOM
            enumerable:   1, get: function(){return resTokenList},
            configurable: 0, set: function(newVal){
                skipPropChange = 1, ele.className = protoObjProto.value = (newVal += ""), skipPropChange = 0;
                var toks = newVal.trim().split(wsRE), oldLen = protoObjProto.length;
                a: for(var cI = 0, cLen = protoObjProto.length = toks.length, sub = 0; cI !== cLen; ++cI){
                    for(var innerI=0; innerI!==cI; ++innerI) if(toks[innerI]===toks[cI]) {sub++; continue a;}
                    resTokenList[cI-sub] = toks[cI];
                }
                for (var i=cLen-sub; i < oldLen; ++i) delete resTokenList[i]; //remove trailing indexs
            }
        }); defineProperty(ele, " uCLp", { // for accessing the hidden prototype
            enumerable: 0, configurable: 0, writeable: 0, value: protoObj.prototype
        }); defineProperty(protoObjProto, " uCL", {
            enumerable: 0, configurable: 0, writeable: 0, value: ele
        }); } else { ele.classList=resTokenList, ele[" uCL"]=resTokenList, ele[" uCLp"]=protoObj.prototype; }
        ele.attachEvent( "onpropertychange", whenPropChanges );
    }
    try { // Much faster & cleaner version for IE8 & IE9:
        // Should work in IE8 because Element.prototype instanceof Node is true according to the specs
        window.Object.defineProperty(window.Element.prototype, "classList", {
            enumerable: 1,   get: function(val){
                                 if (!hasOwnProp.call(this, "classList")) polyfillClassList(this);
                                 return this.classList;
                             },
            configurable: 0, set: function(val){this.className = val}
        });
    } catch(e) { // Less performant fallback for older browsers (IE 6-8):
        window[" uCL"] = polyfillClassList;
        // the below code ensures polyfillClassList is applied to all current and future elements in the doc.
        document.documentElement.firstChild.appendChild(document.createElement('style')).styleSheet.cssText=(
            '_*{x-uCLp:expression(!this.hasOwnProperty("classList")&&window[" uCL"](this))}' + //  IE6
            '[class]{x-uCLp/**/:expression(!this.hasOwnProperty("classList")&&window[" uCL"](this))}' //IE7-8
        );
    }
})(window);
// 3. Patch in unsupported methods in DOMTokenList
(function(DOMTokenListProto, testClass){
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.item) DOMTokenListProto.item = function(i){
        function NullCheck(n) {return n===void 0 ? null : n} return NullCheck(this[i]);
    };
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.toggle || testClass.toggle("a",0)!==false) DOMTokenListProto.toggle=function(val){
        if (arguments.length > 1) return (this[arguments[1] ? "add" : "remove"](val), !!arguments[1]);
        var oldValue = this.value;
        return (this.remove(oldValue), oldValue === this.value && (this.add(val), true) /*|| false*/);
    };
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.replace || typeof testClass.replace("a", "b") !== "boolean")
        DOMTokenListProto.replace = function(oldToken, newToken){
            checkIfValidClassListEntry("replace", oldToken), checkIfValidClassListEntry("replace", newToken);
            var oldValue = this.value;
            return (this.remove(oldToken), this.value !== oldValue && (this.add(newToken), true));
        };
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.contains) DOMTokenListProto.contains = function(value){
        for (var i=0,Len=this.length; i !== Len; ++i) if (this[i] === value) return true;
        return false;
    };
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.forEach) DOMTokenListProto.forEach = function(f){
        if (arguments.length === 1) for (var i = 0, Len = this.length; i !== Len; ++i) f( this[i], i, this);
        else for (var i=0,Len=this.length,tArg=arguments[1]; i !== Len; ++i) f.call(tArg, this[i], i, this);
    };
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.entries) DOMTokenListProto.entries = function(){
        var nextIndex = 0, that = this;
        return {next: function() {
            return nextIndex<that.length ? {value: [nextIndex, that[nextIndex]], done: false} : {done: true};
        }};
    };
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.values) DOMTokenListProto.values = function(){
        var nextIndex = 0, that = this;
        return {next: function() {
            return nextIndex<that.length ? {value: that[nextIndex], done: false} : {done: true};
        }};
    };
    if (!DOMTokenListProto.keys) DOMTokenListProto.keys = function(){
        var nextIndex = 0, that = this;
        return {next: function() {
            return nextIndex<that.length ? {value: nextIndex, done: false} : {done: true};
        }};
    };
})(window.DOMTokenList.prototype, window.document.createElement("div").classList);
})(window);

Caveats

The polyfill is limited in functionality. It's currently unable to polyfill out-of-document-elements (e.g. elements created by document.createElement before they are appended to a parent node) in IE6-7.

However, it should work just fine in IE9. A major discrepancy between the polyfilled version of classList and the W3 specs is that for IE6-8, there is no way to create an immutable object (an object whose properties cannot be directly modified). In IE9, however, it is possible through extending the prototype, freezing the visible object, and overwritting native property methods. However, such actions would not work in IE6-IE8 and, in IE9, slow the performance of the entire webpage to a snail's crawl, making these modifications completely impractical for this polyfill.

A minor note is that in IE6-7, this polyfill uses the window[" uCL"] property on the window object for communicating with the CSS expressions, the x-uCLp css property on all elements, and the element[" uCL"] property on all elements to allow garbage collection and boost performance. In all polyfilled browsers (IE6-9), an additional element[" uCLp"] property is added to element to ensure standards compliant prototyping, and a DOMTokenList[" uCL"]property is added to each element["classList"] object to ensure that the DOMTokenList is bounded to its own element.

명세

명세 상태 주석
DOM
The definition of 'Element.classList' in that specification.
Living Standard Initial definition
DOM4
The definition of 'Element.classList' in that specification.
Obsolete

브라우저 호환성

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
classListChrome Full support 8Edge Full support 16
Full support 16
Partial support 12
Notes
Notes Not supported for SVG elements.
Firefox Full support 3.6IE Partial support 10
Notes
Partial support 10
Notes
Notes Not supported for SVG elements.
Opera Full support YesSafari Full support 6WebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesFirefox Android Full support YesOpera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support 5Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Multiple arguments for add() & remove()Chrome Full support 24Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 26IE No support NoOpera Full support 15Safari Full support 7WebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 26Opera Android ? Safari iOS Full support 7Samsung Internet Android ?
replace()Chrome Full support 61Edge Full support 17Firefox Full support 49IE No support NoOpera ? Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 61Chrome Android Full support 61Firefox Android Full support 49Opera Android ? Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android ?
toggle() method's second argumentChrome Full support 24Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 24IE No support NoOpera Full support 15Safari Full support 7WebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 24Opera Android ? Safari iOS Full support 7Samsung Internet Android ?

Legend

Full support  
Full support
Partial support  
Partial support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

참고