Element.animate()

 

This is an experimental technology
Check the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production.

The Element interface's animate() method is a shortcut method which creates a new Animation, applies it to the element, then plays the animation. It returns the created Animation object instance.

Elements can have multiple animations applied to them. You can get a list of the animations that affect an element by calling Element.getAnimations().

Syntax

var animation = element.animate(keyframes, options); 

Parameters

keyframes

Either an array of keyframe objects, or a keyframe object whose property are arrays of values to iterate over. See Keyframe Formats for more details.

options
Either an integer representing the animation's duration (in milliseconds), or an Object containing one or more timing properties: 
id Optional
A property unique to animate(): a DOMString with which to reference the animation.
delay Optional
The number of milliseconds to delay the start of the animation. Defaults to 0.
direction Optional
Whether the animation runs forwards (normal), backwards (reverse), switches direction after each iteration (alternate), or runs backwards and switches direction after each iteration (alternate-reverse). Defaults to "normal".
duration Optional
The number of milliseconds each iteration of the animation takes to complete. Defaults to 0. Although this is technically optional, keep in mind that your animation will not run if this value is 0.
easing Optional
The rate of the animation's change over time. Accepts the pre-defined values "linear", "ease", "ease-in", "ease-out", and "ease-in-out", or a custom "cubic-bezier" value like "cubic-bezier(0.42, 0, 0.58, 1)". Defaults to "linear".
endDelay Optional
The number of milliseconds to delay after the end of an animation. This is primarily of use when sequencing animations based on the end time of another animation. Defaults to 0. 
fill Optional
Dictates whether the animation's effects should be reflected by the element(s) prior to playing ("backwards"), retained after the animation has completed playing ("forwards"), or both. Defaults to "none".
iterationStart Optional
Describes at what point in the iteration the animation should start. 0.5 would indicate starting halfway through the first iteration for example, and with this value set, an animation with 2 iterations would end halfway through a third iteration. Defaults to 0.0.
iterations Optional
The number of times the animation should repeat. Defaults to 1, and can also take a value of Infinity to make it repeat for as long as the element exists.

Future Options

The following options are currently not shipped anywhere, but will be added in the near future.

composite Optional
Determines how values are combined between this animation and other, separate animations that do not specify their own specific composite operation. Defaults to replace.
  • add¬†dictates an additive effect, where each successive iteration builds on the last. For instance¬†with transform, a translateX(-200px) would not override an earlier rotate(20deg) value but result in translateX(-200px) rotate(20deg).
  • accumulate¬†is similar but a little smarter: blur(2) and blur(5) become blur(7), not blur(2) blur(5).
  • replace overwrites the previous value with the new one.¬†
iterationComposite Optional
Determines how values build from iteration to iteration in this animation. Can be set to accumulate or replace (see above). Defaults to replace.

Return value

Returns an Animation.

Examples

In the demo Down the Rabbit Hole (with the Web Animation API), we use the convenient animate() method to immediately create and play an animation on the #tunnel element to make it flow upwards, infinitely. Notice the array of objects passed as keyframes and also the timing options block.

document.getElementById("tunnel").animate([
  // keyframes
  { transform: 'translateY(0px)' }, 
  { transform: 'translateY(-300px)' }
], { 
  // timing options
  duration: 1000,
  iterations: Infinity
});

Implicit to/from keyframes

In newer browser versions, you are able to set a beginning or end state for an animation only (i.e. a single keyframe), and the browser will infer the other end of the animation if it is able to. For example, consider this simple animation ‚ÄĒ the Keyframe object looks like so:

let rotate360 = [
  { transform: 'rotate(360deg)' }
];

We have only specified the end state of the animation, and the beginning state is implied.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Web Animations Level 2
The definition of 'KeyframeAnimationOptions.iterationComposite' in that specification.
Draft Added the iterationComposite option.
Web Animations
The definition of 'animate()' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
animate
Experimental
Chrome Full support 36Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 48IE No support NoOpera Full support 23Safari Full support Yes
Disabled
Full support Yes
Disabled
Disabled This feature is behind the Web Animations preference and the CSS Animations via Web Animations preference.
WebView Android Full support 37Chrome Android Full support 36Firefox Android Full support 48Opera Android Full support 24Safari iOS Full support 13.4Samsung Internet Android Full support 3.0
composite option
Experimental
Chrome Full support 79
Disabled
Full support 79
Disabled
Disabled From version 79: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge Full support 79
Disabled
Full support 79
Disabled
Disabled From version 79: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Firefox Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 53¬†‚ÄĒ 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 53 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera Full support 66
Disabled
Full support 66
Disabled
Disabled From version 66: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Safari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android Full support 79
Disabled
Full support 79
Disabled
Disabled From version 79: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Firefox Android Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 53¬†‚ÄĒ 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 53 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
id option
Experimental
Chrome Full support 50Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 48IE No support NoOpera Full support 37Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 50Chrome Android Full support 50Firefox Android Full support 48Opera Android Full support 37Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 5.0
Implicit to/from keyframes are supported
Experimental
Chrome No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes Currently Chrome Canary only
Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 75IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari Partial support 13.1
Notes
Partial support 13.1
Notes
Notes Implementation seems somewhat buggy. More information will follow when available.
WebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes Currently Chrome Canary only
Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS Partial support 13.4
Notes
Partial support 13.4
Notes
Notes Implementation seems somewhat buggy. More information will follow when available.
Samsung Internet Android No support No
iterationComposite option
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 51¬†‚ÄĒ 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 51 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 51¬†‚ÄĒ 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 51 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
pseudoElement option
Experimental
Chrome Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 81: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 81: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Firefox Full support 75IE No support NoOpera Partial support 68
Notes Disabled
Partial support 68
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 68: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Safari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 81: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No

Legend

Full support  
Full support
Partial support  
Partial support
No support  
No support
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.

See also