HTML uzdir

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HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) ed Tangalt ig ttwasqedcen amṣuk n agbur n usebtar n web u as-id yefk anamek ed iswi.amedya,agbur n usebtar innek yezmer ad yilli d amatu n tiseddarin neɣ d umuɣ tiẓunin.yezmer daɣen ad awiḍ tugniwin,tifelwin n isefka.mebla ma nekcem deg talqayt ululled,amagrad agi attafem degs aṭas n isallen iw sedduy n HTML.

D'acut HTML?

HTML ur yelli,deg tidett,tutlayt n usihel.ed tutlayt n tarkkizt ittwasqedcen iw akken ad yefk tamṣukt ed unamek n ugbur i nebɣa a n wali deg asmel n web.llan degs iferdisen, imeẓliyen ara nesdukkel ɣer yal tamiwin n iferdisen iw akken ad yejbu unamek.ticṛaḍ tags id yezin ɣef awal naɣ tugna zemren ad sallin aseɣwen aflaḍṛis,ssers aḍṛis s iṭalik,ateg.amedya,s wayen id iteddun akka:

Amcic innu irfa 

Ma tebɣam aḍṛis agi ad yilli deg taseddart,a ten sers deg yiwen uferdis n taseddart  (<p>) :

<p>Amcic innu irfa </p>

Tacellaḥt n uferdis HTML

Mmuqelet akken iwata aferdis agi n taseddart.

Ameskan yemallen tiskiwet n uferdis HTML

Isegran imenzawiyen n aferdis nneɣ atenih:

  1. Taṛkkizt illin:degs isem n uferdis dagi (in this case, p), ger snat n taciwin.ayagi yemmal tazwart n uferdis. ,naɣ amḍiq i seg yesemdu.iw medya nneɣ,ayagi yemmal tazwart n uferdis.
  2. Taṛkkizt imedlen: Dagi ɣuṛnaɣ daɣen taciwin ed yisem n uferdis,i deg anernu tafeggagt timezlit send isem n uferdis.ayagi yemmal taggara n uferdis.iw medya nneɣ,ayagi yemmal taggara n taseddart.
  3. Agbur: D agbur n uferdis,dagi d aḍṛis kkan.
  4. Aferdis: Yesemdu s taṛkkizt yellin,s taṛkkizt imedlen ed agbur.

Iferdisen zemren ad yilli ɣuṛsen d « ayla » d ayen ittemcabin:

A web page screenshot showing a firefox logo, a heading saying mozilla is cool, and two paragraphs of filler text

Deg aylaten llan isalen yernan ig wehan ɣer s aferdis u ur nebɣi ad ittwabeqeḍ akked agbur.deg medya yagi,ayla tadala yettaǧǧa aseqdec n isem i tukza n uferdis u isem agi nezmer a tenseqdec tikkelt nniḍen iw sersi n talɣa ed wayen nniḍen.

Yesefk ɣef ayla ad yesɛu:

  1. Tallunt ger ayla ed isem n uferdis anda aylaten zwaren (ma yella ugar aylaten)
  2. Isem (d isem n wayla),defir-is tadugamt n nned« = »
  3. Alday ed amdal issilawen  iw segrer azal n wayla.        

Asmeckukkel iferdisen

Tzemrem a ttessarsem iferdisen deg fardisen nniḍen,d wagi i wumi neqqaṛ Timeckukkal.amedya,ma yella tebɣam ad seknem d akken amcic innek s tidett irfa,tzemrem a tessarsem awal "tidett" deg uferdis <strong> , anamek-is d akken awal ad yers d amezwaru:

<p>Amcic innu s <strong>tiddett</strong> yerfa .</p>

Acu kkan tikkwal yesefk attḥadrem d akken iferdisen ad meckukklen akken iwata wa ɣer wa.deg medya izrin,a neldi aferdis <p>, dɣa aferdis  <strong>. akkin,a nemdel aferdis <strong> dɣa a nemdel aferdis  <p>. ma yella neseqdec angal id iteddun,ayagi ur iggerez:

<p>amcic innu s <strong>tidett yerfa .</p></strong>

Iferdisen yesefk ad ttwaldin u ad ttwamedlen akken iwata,ma yella zelgen,iminig ad yaɛreḍ ad yefren win iwulmen,ahat mačči d win i nettraǧǧu.deg wawal,ttif ad yilli umeckukkel n iferdisen i wata iw akken ur yettilli yara wugur.

Iferdisen ilemawen

Kra seg fardisen ur ɣuṛsen ara agbur.iferdisen agi isem n sen Iferdisen ilemawen.ma yella n keyed  aferdis <img>  agi deg ufaylu HTML:

<img src="tugniwin/firefox-icon.png" alt="asadez tugna innu">

Aferdis agi degs sin n aylaten maca ulac taṛkkizt imedlen </img>waya agbur agwensan.tidett,aferdis n tugna ur yettawi yara agbur,iswi innes d asekcem n tugna deg sebtar n HTML,deg mḍiq anda aferdis yettwasers.

Tacelaḥt n tateggart HTML

tura akka n wala kra iferdisen HTML azadur.ma ttwabḍan,ur wulmen ara.ansikked amek ara nesemlil iw snulfu n usebtar HTML anguz.anddu seg medya n ugbur yellan deg ufaylu amatar.html (id nesnulfa deg umagrad Sefrek amagrad:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>Asadez usebtar innu </title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <img src="tugna/firefox-icon.png" alt="asadez tugna innu">
  </body>
</html>

Atan d'acu yellan:

  • <!DOCTYP html> —adoctyp.deg tazwart n HTML,deg iseggasen n 1991-1992,idoctypen llan ttwasqedcen iw akken ad gen tamselyut i tigrummiwin n ilugan i nezmer a neseqdec i wakken aninni tateggart tella deg HTML « aɣbal» u ad yaf inezriyen n taṛkkizt.acu kkan,wigi ur ttwaqedcen ara assagi llan kkan iw akken senkeden  asalḥuy n usebtar arnu iminigen iqbuṛen.ma yella tura,dayagi ig llan tmusni ɣef idoctypen.
  • <html></html>aferdis <html> . aferdis agi ed netta ig segreren meṛṛa agbur n usebtar.aferdis agi tikkwal sawalen-as aferdis aẓaṛ.
  • <head></head>aferdis <head> .aferdis agi yettwaseqdec am ukufi i yal taɣawsa yellan deg sebtar HTML maca ur llin ara deg agbur yettwabeqqeḍen.deg fardis agi ara nesers awal yufrarenkeywords ,yiwen uglam n usebtar ara d-yefɣen deg amsadday n unadi,iseɣwen ig teddun ɣer sifuyla CSS ad ttwasqedcen deg sersi n talɣa,alɣuten n wuraren isekkilen (character sets) ay ttwasqedcen ar taggara.
  • <body></body>aferdis <body> . aferdis agi  yella ɣuṛes meṛṛa aferdis i tebɣam attbeqqeḍem iw akken anerzuf a tiwali:ayagi izmer ad yilli d adṛis naɣ,tugniwin,tividiyutin,uraren ateg.
  • <meta charset="utf-8"> — aferdis agi  yesbadu urar n isekkilen ig sefk ad ttwasqedcen i zzmam u ad yesken belli ed utf-8.utf-8 yesdukkel tagrumma n isekkilen yettwasnen yettwasqedcen deg tutlayin n imdanen.amatu utf-8 yettaǧǧa aselḥuy n adṛis yellan teseqdacem deg sebtar.ɣef aya i neseqdac urar agi n isekkilen acku yettaǧǧayaɣ a tenseqdec sumata deg yal iḥricen..
  • <title></title> — aferdis agi yeskanay-ed azwel n usebtar innek.d azwel agi ara d ibanen deg iccer mara yilli asebtar innek yezdem.u daɣen d azwel agi ara yettwasqedcen deg glem n usebtar mara tent sersem deg ticṛaḍ isebtaren.

Tugniwin

I tikkelt nniḍen ansikked aferdis n tugna:

<img src="tugna/firefox-icon.png" alt="asadez tugna innu">

Am akken in wala tikkelt izrin,aferdis agi yettaǧǧa asekcem n tugna deg sebtar,deg mḍiq ideg aferdis ittbaned.tugna yettwasqedcen tettwasbad seg ayla src (iw ɣbalu) yellan degs abrid ɣer s afaylu n tugna.

Neseqdec daɣen ayla alt (iw alternatif) ideg yellan degs adṛis aɣ yeǧǧen an glem tugna u ig zemren a tettwaseqdec sɣuṛ uqedac ur nettwali tugna:

  1. Acku iẓṛi n sen ur iggerez ara.iqedacen ig llan d imakdawen deg iẓṛi seqdacen sumata imaɣran igdilen ig qaṛen adṛis n wayla yagi iw akken aqedac ad yegzu d'acut.
  2. Asku yella wayen yeḍṛan ndiri u degmi tugna ur tebeqqeḍ ara.amedya,ayagi izmer ad yeḍṛu ma yella abrid ɣer tugna ur iggerez ara : ɛarḍet attbedelem abrid n yellan deg ayla n wen src akken awen-id iban.ma yella abrid iggerez,awen-id yefeɣ waya:

                                                                      

Ayen iwumi yesefk astecfum dakken ayla yettwaseqdec iw glem n tugna.adṛis yellan deg ayla yesefk ad i jaǧǧew deqs n isalen iw akken ameɣri ad yeḥṣu amek i tga tugna.amedya,adṛis agi i seqdac-aɣ « Asadez tugna innu » ur yelhi yara maḍi.tifrat iwulmen d asersi « Turza Firefox ,ig skanayen abaraɣ s tajeḥniṭ degs times yezin iw akal ».

Deg tawuri n tugna innek,aselhu n udṛis ameslellay iw akken ad i glem tugna akken iwata.

Tazmilt: ugar isalen i takcumt,tzemrem a tesqedcem tigezmi  Takcumt  n MDN.

Ṛekkez adṛis

Deg tigezmi yagi,anẓeṛ kra seg fardisen HTML n uzadur iw ṛekkez n idṛisen.

Izwal

iferdisen n wazwel ttaǧǧan asbadu n kra idṛisen am izwal naɣ adahil n izwal iw agbur.akken yebɣu yilli,wigi teddun am akken adlis ɣuṛes azwel amenzawi: daɣen d izwal n yiɣef u d adahil n izwal deg iɣfawen,HTML degs 6  iswiren n izwal, <h1><h6> tugett d 3-4 iswiren agi ay qidden:

<h1>Azwel innu amenzawi</h1>
<h2>Azwel innu n tigezmi</h2>
<h3>Adahil innu</h3>
<h4>Adahil-udahil n azwel innu</h4>

Tura tzemrem a ttarnum azwel yemsasan iw sebtar n wen seg iferdisen agi.tzemrem a tesersem nnig uferdis  <img> deg tateggart n HTML.

Tiseddarin

Am akken  nezzegzi deg tazwara,iferdisen , <p> ttwasqedcen iw akken ad yers degs tiseddarin n udṛis.attuɣalem aten teseqdacem nedzah iw sersi n udṛis deg sebtar:

<p>Attan taseddart</p>

Dagi tzemrem a tternum adṛis i tfernem mara  tɣatasem Amek ara d yefeɣ wasmel n wen? tzemrem a tesersem adṛis n wen deg yiwet naɣ deg atas n tiseddarin,srid sdaw uferdis  <img> .

Umuɣen

Amur ameqṛan n igburen yellan deg Web llan s talɣa n umuɣen.ihi HTML ɣuṛes iferdisen yettwasqedcen deg sebggen n umuɣen.tarkkizt n umuɣen degs yall ass sin n iferdisen.tiwsatin n umuɣen yettwasqedcen yall ass ed umuɣen yessuneḍen ed umuɣen wer-ssuneḍen:

 

  1. Umuɣen wer-ssuneḍen d umuɣen i deg tasunḍa n iferdisen mačči dayen yesɛan can taṛkkizt yettwasqedcen i umuɣen agi ed aferdis<ul>.
  2. Umuɣen yessuneḍen d umuɣen i deg tasunḍa n iferdisen yesɛan can taṛkkizt yettwasqedcen i umuɣen agi ed aferdis <ol>.

Yal aferdis n umuɣ yettuṛekkez akked aferdis <li> (list item).

Deg medya, ma nebɣa anbedel taseddart deg yiwen wumuɣ:

<p>Mozilla, d agraw ageraɣlan i deg ttekkan degs itiknulugen , imedmayen , imsalayen ig qedcen akken... </p>

Nezmer a neg:

<p>Mozilla,d agraw ageraɣlan i deg ttekkan degs</p>
    
<ul> 
  <li>itiknulugen</li>
  <li>imedmayen</li>
  <li>imsalayen</li>
</ul>

<p>ig qedcen akken ... </p>

Ɛarḍet a tternum umuɣ yessuneḍen naɣ wer-yessuneḍen ɣef usebtar n wen.tzemrem a ternum ɣer tugna.

Iseɣwan

iseɣwan ɣuṛsen can,ed nutnni ig gan d akken web ad yilli d azeṭṭa i deg nezmer an inig seg sebtar ɣer s asebtar.iw snulfu n useɣwan,iqqad aseqdec n uferdis— <a> —(a d tazribt i  « ancre ») iw sseɣwel n udṛis ɣer s aseɣwan,ddut deg mecwaṛen :

  1. Ferenet adṛis (dagi neseqdac s udṛis « Ameskan n Mozilla ».
  2. Segreret adṛis  deg ferdis<a>:
    <a>Ameskan n Mozilla</a>
  3. Awit-ed ayla herf iw ferdis  <a> am akka:
    <a href="">Ameskan n Mozilla</a>
  4. Deg wayala yagi,ernut aseɣwan ɣer s asmel ideg tzemer-eḍ att wahiḍ iqedacen:
    <a href="https://www.mozilla.org/en-kb/about/manifesto/">Amaskan Mozilla</a>

Γuṛwat atettum idis https:// naɣ http:// ig skanayen askari yettwasqedcen,deg tazwart n tansa.mara d snulfuḍ aseɣwan,skayad asebtar innek u tekki fellas iw akken attsenked-ḍ belli iteddu akken iwata..

href izmer ad iban yesewham deg tmuɣli-s.Tasefrayt ɣef wansi id yekka isem agi u ahat ak i sishel astecfuḍ : href yebɣa ad yini  hypertext reference s taglizit,anamek-is s taqbaylit Aflaḍṛis Tamselɣut.

Mmur tgim ara,tzemrem aternum aseɣwan iw sebtar innek s umezga n isalen agi.

Tarayt

Ma yella tḍefṛem tiknutin usebtar agi,asebtar innk ad ifeɣ am agi yellan da (tzemrem daɣen wali da):

A web page screenshot showing a firefox logo, a heading saying mozilla is cool, and two paragraphs of filler text

Ma yella twaḥlem,ur ttkukru ara semyif leqdic innek akked amedya yekkfan yella di Github.

Deg amagrad agi, ur d nugem ara deg talqayt n HTML.iw akken tamusni a ttilli telha,tzemrem a tterem s asbtar agi HTML Learning topic.

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