Keyframe Formats

This is an experimental technology
Check the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production.

Element.animate(), KeyframeEffect.KeyframeEffect(), and KeyframeEffect.setKeyframes() all accept objects formatted to represent a set of keyframes. There are several options to this format, which are explained below.

Syntax

There are two different ways to format keyframes:

  1. An array of objects (keyframes) consisting of properties and values to iterate over. This is the canonical format returned by the getKeyframes() method.

    element.animate([ 
      { // from
        opacity: 0,
        color: "#fff"
      }, 
      { // to
        opacity: 1,
     ​   color: "#000"
      }
    ], 2000);

    Offsets for each keyframe can be specified by providing an offset value.

    element.animate([ { opacity: 1 },
                      { opacity: 0.1, offset: 0.7 },
                      { opacity: 0 } ],
                    2000);
    

    Note: offset values, if provided, must be between 0.0 and 1.0 (inclusive) and arranged in ascending order.

    It is not necessary to specify an offset for every keyframe. Keyframes without a specified offset will be evenly spaced between adjacent keyframes.

    The easing to apply between keyframes can be specified by providing an easing value as illustrated below.

    element.animate([ { opacity: 1, easing: 'ease-out' },
                      { opacity: 0.1, easing: 'ease-in' },
                      { opacity: 0 } ],
                    2000);
    

    In this example, the specified easing only applies from the keyframe where it is specified until the next keyframe. Any easing value specified on the options argument, however, applies across a single iteration of the animation — for the entire duration.

  2. An object containing key-value pairs consisting of the property to animate and an array of values to iterate over.

    element.animate({
      opacity: [ 0, 1 ],          // [ from, to ]
      color:   [ "#fff", "#000" ] // [ from, to ]
    }, 2000);
    

    Using this format, the number of elements in each array does not need to be equal. The provided values will be spaced out independently.

    element.animate({
      opacity: [ 0, 1 ], // offset: 0, 1
      backgroundColor: [ "red", "yellow", "green" ], // offset: 0, 0.5, 1
    }, 2000);
    

    The special keys offset, easing, and composite (described below) may be specified alongside the property values.

    element.animate({
      opacity: [ 0, 0.9, 1 ],
      offset: [ 0, 0.8 ], // Shorthand for [ 0, 0.8, 1 ]
      easing: [ 'ease-in', 'ease-out' ],
    }, 2000);
    

    After generating a suitable set of keyframes from the property value lists, each supplied offset is applied to the corresponding keyframe. If there are insufficient values, or if the list contains null values, the keyframes without specified offsets will be evenly spaced as with the array format described above.

    If there are too few easing or composite values, the corresponding list will be repeated as needed.

Implicit to/from keyframes

In newer browser versions, you are able to set a beginning or end state for an animation only (i.e. a single keyframe), and the browser will infer the other end of the animation if it is able to. For example, consider this simple animation — the Keyframe object looks like so:

let rotate360 = [
  { transform: 'rotate(360deg)' }
];

We have only specified the end state of the animation, and the beginning state is implied.

Attributes

Keyframes may specify property-value pairs for any of the animatable css properties. The property names are specified using camel-case so for example background-color becomes backgroundColor and background-position-x becomes backgroundPositionX. Shorthand values such as margin are also permitted.

Two exceptional CSS properties are:

  • float, which must be written as cssFloat since "float" is a reserved word in JavaScript. It's just for reference here, this will have no effect on animation since "float" is not an animatable CSS property.
  • offset, which must be written as cssOffset since "offset" represents the keyframe offset as described below.

The following special attributes may also be specified:

offset

The offset of the keyframe specified as a number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive or null. This is equivalent to specifying start and end states in percentages in CSS stylesheets using @keyframes. If this value is null or missing, the keyframe will be evenly spaced between adjacent keyframes.

easing

The timing function used from this keyframe until the next keyframe in the series.

composite

The KeyframeEffect.composite operation used to combine the values specified in this keyframe with the underlying value. This will be auto if the composite operation specified on the effect is being used.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Web Animations
The definition of 'Keyframe object formats' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Element.animate

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
animate
Experimental
Chrome Full support 36Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 48IE No support NoOpera Full support 23Safari Full support Yes
Disabled
Full support Yes
Disabled
Disabled This feature is behind the Web Animations preference and the CSS Animations via Web Animations preference.
WebView Android Full support 37Chrome Android Full support 36Firefox Android Full support 48Opera Android Full support 24Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 3.0
composite option
Experimental
Chrome Full support 79
Disabled
Full support 79
Disabled
Disabled From version 79: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge Full support 79
Disabled
Full support 79
Disabled
Disabled From version 79: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Firefox Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 53 — 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 53 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera Full support 66
Disabled
Full support 66
Disabled
Disabled From version 66: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Safari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android Full support 79
Disabled
Full support 79
Disabled
Disabled From version 79: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Firefox Android Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 53 — 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 53 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
id option
Experimental
Chrome Full support 50Edge Full support 79Firefox Full support 48IE No support NoOpera Full support 37Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 50Chrome Android Full support 50Firefox Android Full support 48Opera Android Full support 37Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 5.0
iterationComposite option
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 51 — 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 51 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android Full support 63
Disabled
Full support 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 63: this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.compositing.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No support 51 — 63
Disabled
Disabled From version 51 until version 63 (exclusive): this feature is behind the dom.animations-api.core.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
pseudoElement option
Experimental
Chrome Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 81: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 81: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Firefox Full support 75IE No support NoOpera Partial support 68
Notes Disabled
Partial support 68
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 68: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference.
Safari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Partial support 81
Notes Disabled
Notes A valid animation object is returned but the targeted pseudoelement is not visually animated.
Disabled From version 81: this feature is behind the Experimental Web Platform Features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No

Legend

Full support  
Full support
Partial support  
Partial support
No support  
No support
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.

See also