Keyframe Formats

This is an experimental technology
Check the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production.

Element.animate(), KeyframeEffect.KeyframeEffect(), and KeyframeEffect.setKeyframes() all accept objects formatted to represent a set of keyframes. There are several options to this format, which are explained below.

Syntax

There are two different ways to format keyframes:

  1. An array of objects (keyframes) consisting of properties and values to iterate over. This is the canonical format returned by the getKeyframes() method.

    element.animate([ 
      { // from
        opacity: 0,
        color: "#fff"
      }, 
      { // to
        opacity: 1,
     ​   color: "#000"
      }
    ], 2000);

    Offsets for each keyframe can be specified by providing an offset value.

    element.animate([ { opacity: 1 },
                      { opacity: 0.1, offset: 0.7 },
                      { opacity: 0 } ],
                    2000);
    

    Note: offset values, if provided, must be between 0.0 and 1.0 (inclusive) and arranged in ascending order.

    It is not necessary to specify an offset for every keyframe. Keyframes without a specified offset will be evenly spaced between adjacent keyframes.

    The easing to apply between keyframes can be specified by providing an easing value as illustrated below.

    element.animate([ { opacity: 1, easing: 'ease-out' },
                      { opacity: 0.1, easing: 'ease-in' },
                      { opacity: 0 } ],
                    2000);
    

    In this example, the specified easing only applies from the keyframe where it is specified until the next keyframe. Any easing value specified on the options argument, however, applies across a single iteration of the animation — for the entire duration.

  2. An object containing key-value pairs consisting of the property to animate and an array of values to iterate over.

    element.animate({
      opacity: [ 0, 1 ],          // [ from, to ]
      color:   [ "#fff", "#000" ] // [ from, to ]
    }, 2000);
    

    Using this format, the number of elements in each array does not need to be equal. The provided values will be spaced out independently.

    element.animate({
      opacity: [ 0, 1 ], // offset: 0, 1
      backgroundColor: [ "red", "yellow", "green" ], // offset: 0, 0.5, 1
    }, 2000);
    

    The special keys offset, easing, and composite (described below) may be specified alongside the property values.

    element.animate({
      opacity: [ 0, 0.9, 1 ],
      offset: [ 0, 0.8 ], // Shorthand for [ 0, 0.8, 1 ]
      easing: [ 'ease-in', 'ease-out' ],
    }, 2000);
    

    After generating a suitable set of keyframes from the property value lists, each supplied offset is applied to the corresponding keyframe. If there are insufficient values, or if the list contains null values, the keyframes without specified offsets will be evenly spaced as with the array format described above.

    If there are too few easing or composite values, the corresponding list will be repeated as needed.

Attributes

Keyframes may specify property-value pairs for any of the animatable CSS properties. The property names are specified using camel-case so for example background-color becomes backgroundColor and background-position-x becomes backgroundPositionX. Shorthand values such as margin are also permitted.

Two exceptional CSS properties are:

  • float, which must be written as cssFloat since "float" is a reserved word in JavaScript
  • offset, which must be written as cssOffset since "offset" represents the keyframe offset as described below.

The following special attributes may also be specified:

offset

The offset of the keyframe specified as a number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive or null. This is equivalent to specifying start and end states in percentages in CSS stylesheets using @keyframes. If this value is null or missing, the keyframe will be evenly spaced between adjacent keyframes.

easing

The timing function used from this keyframe until the next keyframe in the series.

composite

The KeyframeEffect.composite operation used to combine the values specified in this keyframe with the underlying value. This will be auto if the composite operation specified on the effect is being used.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Web Animations
The definition of 'Keyframe object formats' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Element.animate

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
Basic support
Experimental
Chrome Full support 36Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 48IE No support NoOpera Full support 23Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 37Chrome Android Full support 36Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android Full support 48Opera Android Full support 23Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
id option
Experimental
Chrome Full support 50Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 48IE No support NoOpera Full support 37Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 50Chrome Android Full support 50Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android Full support 48Opera Android Full support 37Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
composite, iterationComposite, and spacing options
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoEdge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

Last updated by: fscholz,