In this article we describe various web-related concepts: webpages, websites, web servers, and search engines. These terms are often confused by newcomers to the Web, or are incorrectly used. Let's learn what they each mean!
|Prerequisites:||You should know how the Internet works.|
|Objective:||Learn the difference between a webpage, a website, a web server, and a search engine.|
As with any area of knowledge, the Web comes with a lot of jargon. Don't worry, we won't overwhelm you with all of it (we have a glossary if you're curious). However, there are a few basic terms you need to understand at the outset, since you'll hear these expressions all the time as you read on. It's easy to confuse these terms sometimes, since they refer to related but different functionalities. In fact, you'll sometimes see these terms misused in news reports and elsewhere, so getting them mixed up is understandable!
We'll cover these terms and technologies in more detail as we explore further, but these quick definitions will be a great start for you:
- A document which can be displayed in a web browser such as Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Edge, or Apple's Safari. These are also often called "web pages" or just "pages."
- A collection of webpages which are grouped together and usually connected together in various ways. Often called a "web site" or simply a "site."
- web server
- A computer that hosts a website on the Internet.
- search engine
- A website that helps you find other webpages, such as Google, Bing, or Yahoo.
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So, let's dig deeper into how those four terms are related and why they are sometimes confused with each other.
A webpage is a simple document displayable by a browser. Such document is written in the HTML language (which we look into in more detail in other articles). A webpage can embed a variety of different types of resources such as:
- style information — controlling a page's look-and-feel
- scripts — which add interactivity to the page
- media — images, sounds, and videos.
Note: Browsers can also display other documents such as PDF files or images, but the term webpage specifically refers to HTML documents. Otherwise we only use the term document.
All webpages available on the web are reachable through a unique address. To access a page, just type its address in your browser address bar:
A website is a collection of linked webpages (plus their associated resources) that share a unique domain name. Each webpage of a given website provides explicit links—most of the time in the form of clickable portion of text—that allow the user to move from one page of the website to another.
To access a website, type its domain name in your browser address bar, and the browser will display the website's main webpage, or homepage (casually referred as "the home"):
Webpage and website are especially easy to confuse when a website contains only one webpage. Such a website is sometimes called a single-page website.
A web server is a computer hosting one or more websites. "Hosting" means that all the webpages and their supporting files are available on that computer. The web server will send any webpage from the website it is hosting to any user's browser, per user request.
Don't confuse websites and web servers. For example, if you hear someone say, "My website is not responding", it actually means that the web server is not responding and therefore the website is not available. More importantly, since a web server can host multiple websites, the term web server is never used to designate a website, as it could cause great confusion. In our previous example, if we said, "My web server is not responding", it means that no websites on that web server are available.
Search engines are a common source on confusion on the web. A search engine is a special kind of website that helps users find webpages from other websites.
Many beginners on the web confuse search engines and browsers. Let's make it clear: A browser is a software that retrieves and displays webpages; a search engine is a website that helps people find webpages from other websites. The confusion arises because, the first time someone launches a browser, the browser displays a search engine's homepage. This makes sense, because, obviously, the first thing you want to do with a browser is to find a web page to display. Don't confuse the infrastructure (e.g., the browser) with the service (e.g., the search engine). The distinction will help you quite a bit, but even some professionals speak loosely, so don't feel anxious about it.
Here is an instance of Firefox showing a Google search box as its default startup page:
- Dig deeper: What is a web server
- See how web pages are linked into a web site: Understanding links on the web