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    Array

    Özet

    JavaScript Array global objesi high-level, list-like objeler olan diziler için bir constructor'dır.

    Söz Dizimi

    [element0, element1, ..., elementN]
    new Array(element0, element1, ..., elementN)
    new Array(diziUzunlugu)
    
    element0, element1, ..., elementN
    A JavaScript array is initialized with the given elements, except in the case where a single argument is passed to the Array constructor and that argument is a number. (See below.) Note that this special case only applies to JavaScript arrays created with the Array constructor, not with array literals created with the bracket syntax.
    arrayLength
    If the only argument passed to the Array constructor is an integer between 0 and 232-1 (inclusive), a new, empty JavaScript array and its length is set to that number. If the argument is any other number, a RangeError exception is thrown.

    Description

    Arrays are list-like objects that come with a several built-in methods to perform traversal and mutation operations. Neither the size of a JavaScript array nor the types of its elements are fixed. Since an array's size can grow or shrink at any time, JavaScript arrays are not guaranteed to be dense. In general, these are convenient characteristics; but if these features are not desirable for your particular use case, you might consider using WebGL typed arrays.

    Note that you shouldn't use an array as an associative array. You can use plain objects instead, although doing so comes with its own caveats. See the post Lightweight JavaScript dictionaries with arbitrary keys as an example.

    Accessing array elements

    JavaScript arrays are zero-indexed; the first element of an array is actually at index 0, and the last element is at the index equal to the value of the array's length property minus 1.

    var arr = ["this is the first element", "this is the second element"];
    console.log(arr[0]);              // prints "this is the first element"
    console.log(arr[1]);              // prints "this is the second element"
    console.log(arr[arr.length - 1]); // prints "this is the second element"
    

    Array elements are just object properties, in the way that toString is a property. However, note that trying to access the first element of an array as follows will throw a syntax error:

    console.log(arr.0);
    

    Note that there is nothing unique about JavaScript arrays and their properties that causes this. JavaScript properties that begin with a digit cannot be referenced with dot notation. They must be accessed using bracket notation. For example, if you had an object with a property "3d", it too would have to be referenced using bracket notation, not dot notation. This similarity is exhibited in the following two code samples:

    var years = [1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010];
    try {
      console.log(years.0);
    }
    catch (ex) {
      console.log("Using bracket notation");
      console.log(years[0]);
    }
    
    try {
      renderer.3d.setTexture(model, "character.png");
    }
    catch (ex) {
      console.log("Using bracket notation");
      renderer["3d"].setTexture(model, "character.png");
    }
    

    Note that in the 3d example, "3d" had to be quoted. It's possible to quote the JavaScript array indexes as well (e.g., years["2"] instead of years[2]), although it's not necessary. The 2 in years[2] eventually gets coerced into a string by the JavaScript engine, anyway, through an implicit toString conversion. It is for this reason that "2" and "02" would refer to two different slots on the years object and the following example logs true:

    console.log(years["2"] != years["02"]);
    

    Relationship between length and numerical properties

    A JavaScript array's length property and numerical properties are connected. Several of the built-in array methods (e.g., join, slice, indexOf, etc.) take into account the value of an array's length property when they're called. Other methods (e.g., push, splice, etc.) also result in updates to an array's length property.

    var fruits = [];
    fruits.push("banana", "apple", "peach");
    
    console.log(fruits.length); // 3

    When setting a property on a JavaScript array when the property is a valid array index and that index is outside the current bounds of the array, the array will grow to a size large enough to accommodate an element at that index, and the engine will update the array's length property accordingly:

    fruits[3] = "mango";
    console.log(fruits[3]);
    console.log(fruits.length); // 4

    Setting the length property, directly, also results in special behavior.

    fruits.length = 10;
    console.log(fruits);        // The array gets padded with undefined
    console.log(fruits.length); // 10
    

    This is explained further on the length page.

    Creating an array using the result of a match

    The result of a match between a regular expression and a string can create a JavaScript array. This array has properties and elements that provide information about the match. An array is the return value of RegExp.exec, String.match, and String.replace. To help explain these properties and elements, look at the following example and then refer to the table below:

    // Match one d followed by one or more b's followed by one d
    // Remember matched b's and the following d
    // Ignore case
    
    var myRe = /d(b+)(d)/i;
    var myArray = myRe.exec("cdbBdbsbz");
    

    The properties and elements returned from this match are as follows:

    Property/Element Description Example
    input A read-only property that reflects the original string against which the regular expression was matched. cdbBdbsbz
    index A read-only property that is the zero-based index of the match in the string. 1
    [0] A read-only element that specifies the last matched characters. dbBd
    [1], ...[n] Read-only elements that specify the parenthesized substring matches, if included in the regular expression. The number of possible parenthesized substrings is unlimited. [1]: bB
    [2]: d

    Properties

    For properties available on Array instances, see Properties of Array instances.

    prototype
    Allows the addition of properties to all objects.
    Properties inherited from Function:

    Methods

    For methods available on Array instances, see Methods of Array instances.
    isArray Requires JavaScript 1.8.5
    Return true if a variable is an array, if not false.

    Array generic methods

    Sometimes you would like to apply array methods to strings or other array-like objects (such as function arguments). By doing this, you treat a string as an array of characters (or otherwise treat a non-array as an array). For example, in order to check that every character in the variable str is a letter, you would write:

    function isLetter(character) {
      return (character >= "a" && character <= "z");
    }
    
    if (Array.prototype.every.call(str, isLetter))
      alert("The string '" + str + "' contains only letters!");
    

    This notation is rather wasteful and JavaScript 1.6 introduced a generic shorthand:

    if (Array.every(isLetter, str))
      alert("The string '" + str + "' contains only letters!");
    

    Generics are also available on String.

    These are currently not part of ECMAScript standards (though the ES6 Array.from() can be used to achieve this). The following is a shim to allow its use in all browsers:

    // Assumes Array extras already present (one may use polyfills for these as well)
    (function () {
        'use strict';
    
        var i,
            // We could also build the array of methods with the following, but the
            //   getOwnPropertyNames() method is non-shimable:
            // Object.getOwnPropertyNames(Array).filter(function (methodName) {return typeof Array[methodName] === 'function'});
            methods = [
                'join', 'reverse', 'sort', 'push', 'pop', 'shift', 'unshift',
                'splice', 'concat', 'slice', 'indexOf', 'lastIndexOf',
                'forEach', 'map', 'reduce', 'reduceRight', 'filter',
                'some', 'every', 'isArray'
            ],
            methodCount = methods.length,
            assignArrayGeneric = function (methodName) {
                var method = Array.prototype[methodName];
                Array[methodName] = function (arg1) {
                    return method.apply(arg1, Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1));
                };
            };
    
        for (i = 0; i < methodCount; i++) {
            assignArrayGeneric(methods[i]);
        }
    }());

    Examples

    Example: Creating an array

    The following example creates an array, msgArray, with a length of 0, then assigns values to msgArray[0] and msgArray[99], changing the length of the array to 100.

    var msgArray = new Array();
    msgArray[0] = "Hello";
    msgArray[99] = "world";
    
    if (msgArray.length == 100)
       print("The length is 100.");
    

    Example: Creating a two-dimensional array

    The following creates chess board as a two dimensional array of strings. The first move is made by copying the 'p' in 6,4 to 4,4. The old position 6,4 is made blank.

    var board = 
    [ ['R','N','B','Q','K','B','N','R'],
      ['P','P','P','P','P','P','P','P'],
      [' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' '],
      [' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' '],
      [' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' '],
      [' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' ',' '],
      ['p','p','p','p','p','p','p','p'],
      ['r','n','b','q','k','b','n','r']];
    print(board.join('\n') + '\n\n');
    
    // Move King's Pawn forward 2
    board[4][4] = board[6][4];
    board[6][4] = ' ';
    print(board.join('\n'));
    

    Here is the output:

    R,N,B,Q,K,B,N,R
    P,P,P,P,P,P,P,P
     , , , , , , , 
     , , , , , , , 
     , , , , , , , 
     , , , , , , , 
    p,p,p,p,p,p,p,p
    r,n,b,q,k,b,n,r
    
    R,N,B,Q,K,B,N,R
    P,P,P,P,P,P,P,P
     , , , , , , , 
     , , , , , , , 
     , , , ,p, , , 
     , , , , , , , 
    p,p,p,p, ,p,p,p
    r,n,b,q,k,b,n,r
    

    Browser compatibility

    Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
    Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)

    See also

    Document Tags and Contributors

    Contributors to this page: ramesaliyev, teoli
    Last updated by: teoli,