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The includes() method determines whether an array includes a certain value among its entries, returning true or false as appropriate.


arr.includes(valueToFind[, fromIndex])



The value to search for.

Note: When comparing strings and characters, includes() is case-sensitive.

fromIndex Optional
The position in this array at which to begin searching for valueToFind; the first character to be searched is found at fromIndex for positive values of fromIndex, or at array.length + fromIndex for negative values of fromIndex (using the absolute value of fromIndex as the number of characters from the end of the array at which to start the search). Defaults to 0.

Return value

A Boolean which is true if the value valueToFind is found within the array (or the part of the array indicated by the index fromIndex, if specified). Values of zero are all considered to be equal regardless of sign (that is, -0 is considered to be equal to both 0 and +0), but false is not considered to be the same as 0.

Note: Technically speaking, includes() uses the sameValueZero algorithm to determine whether the given element is found.


[1, 2, 3].includes(2);     // true
[1, 2, 3].includes(4);     // false
[1, 2, 3].includes(3, 3);  // false
[1, 2, 3].includes(3, -1); // true
[1, 2, NaN].includes(NaN); // true

fromIndex is greater than or equal to the array length

If fromIndex is greater than or equal to the length of the array, false is returned. The array will not be searched.

var arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

arr.includes('c', 3);   // false
arr.includes('c', 100); // false

Computed index is less than 0

If fromIndex is negative, the computed index is calculated to be used as a position in the array at which to begin searching for valueToFind. If the computed index is less or equal than -1 * array.length, the entire array will be searched.

// array length is 3
// fromIndex is -100
// computed index is 3 + (-100) = -97

var arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

arr.includes('a', -100); // true
arr.includes('b', -100); // true
arr.includes('c', -100); // true
arr.includes('a', -2); // false

includes() used as a generic method

includes() method is intentionally generic. It does not require this value to be an Array object, so it can be applied to other kinds of objects (e.g. array-like objects). The example below illustrates includes() method called on the function's arguments object.

(function() {
  console.log([], 'a')); // true
  console.log([], 'd')); // false


Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2016 (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.includes' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.includes' in that specification.


// From
if (!Array.prototype.includes) {
  Object.defineProperty(Array.prototype, 'includes', {
    value: function (searchElement, fromIndex) {

      // 1. Let O be ? ToObject(this value).
      if (this == null) {
        throw new TypeError('"this" is null or not defined');

      var o = Object(this);

      // 2. Let len be ? ToLength(? Get(O, "length")).
      var len = o.length >>> 0;

      // 3. If len is 0, return false.
      if (len === 0) {
        return false;

      // 4. Let n be ? ToInteger(fromIndex).
      //    (If fromIndex is undefined, this step produces the value 0.)
      var n = fromIndex | 0;

      // 5. If n ≥ 0, then
      //  a. Let k be n.
      // 6. Else n < 0,
      //  a. Let k be len + n.
      //  b. If k < 0, let k be 0.
      var k = Math.max(n >= 0 ? n : len - Math.abs(n), 0);

      function sameValueZero(x, y) {
        return x === y || (typeof x === 'number' && typeof y === 'number' && isNaN(x) && isNaN(y));

      // 7. Repeat, while k < len
      while (k < len) {
        // a. Let elementK be the result of ? Get(O, ! ToString(k)).
        // b. If SameValueZero(searchElement, elementK) is true, return true.
        // c. Increase k by 1.
        if (sameValueZero(o[k], searchElement)) {
          return true;

      // 8. Return false
      return false;

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
includesChrome Full support 47Edge Full support 14Firefox Full support 43IE No support NoOpera Full support 34Safari Full support 9WebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 43Opera Android Full support 34Safari iOS Full support 9Samsung Internet Android Full support Yesnodejs Full support 6.0.0
Full support 6.0.0
Full support 5.0.0
Disabled From version 5.0.0: this feature is behind the --harmony runtime flag.


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Full support
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See also