String

A String konstruktorral létrehozhatunk karakterláncokat (szövegek szinte mindenhol jelenlévő reprezentációja)

Szintaxis

A sztringliterálok a következő formájúak:

'sztring szöveg'
"sztring szöveg"
"中文 español Deutsch English देवनागरी العربية português বাংলা русский 日本語 norsk bokmål ਪੰਜਾਬੀ 한국어 தமிழ் עברית"

Sztringeket létrehozhatunk a String globális objektummal közvetlenül:

String(valami)

Paraméterek

valami
Bármi, ami sztringgé alakítható.

Sablon literálok

Az ECMAScript 2015-tel kezdődően, a sztringliterálok ún. Template literal-ok is lehetnek:

`hello világ`
`hello!
 world!`
`hello ${who}`
tag `<a>${who}</a>`

Itt a ${who} helyére a megfelelő érték fog behelyettsítődni.

Escape jelölés

Egyes karakterek összezavarhatnák a JavaScript értelmezőt. Például egy " karakterről hogyan tufná megállapítani, hogy a karakterlánc végét jelöli, vagy annak része? Erre találták ki az escape jelölést, aminek segítségével jelölhetjük, hogy egy karakternek nincs speciális szerepe, nem kell programkódként értelmezni. Lényegében az történik, hogy a feldolgozott karakterláncban az escape karakter (például a \") helyére az annak megfelelő kimenet (") kerül.

Kód Kimenet
\XXX oktális Latin-1 karakter.
\' egyszeres idézőjel
\" idézőjel
\\ backslash
\n új sor (soremelés)
\r kocsi-vissza
\v függőleges tabulátor
\t tabulátor
\b backspace
\f lapdobás
\uXXXX unicode kódpont
\u{X} ... \u{XXXXXX} unicode kódpont
\xXX hexadecimális Latin-1 karakter

Más nyelvekkel ellentétben a JavaScript nem különbözteti meg az egyszeres, illetve a kettős idézőjelekkel hivatkozott sztringeket; ezért a fenti escape szekvenciák mind az egyszeres, mind a kettős idézőjelekkel létrehozott sztringek esetén működnek.

Hosszú sztring literálok

Időnként a kódban szerepelhetnek nagyon hosszú sztringek. Vég nélkül folytatódó, illetve a szerkesztőprogram kénye-kedve szerint megtört sorok helyett lehetséges a sztringek több sorba tördelése a tartalom meghagyásával. Erre két mód van.

Használhatjuk a + operátort több füzér összefűzéséhez, így:

let longString = "Ez egy elég hosszú String ahhoz " +
                 "hogy több sorba rendezzem, mert " +
                 "máskülönben a kód nem olvasható.";

Vagy használható a backslash karakter ("\") az összes sor végén, jelölve, hogy a sztring a következő sorban folytatódik. Győződjünk meg róla, hogy nincs szóköz vagy más karakter a backslash után (soremelés kivételével), akár bekezdésként, különben nem fog működni. Ennek formája a kövekező:

let longString = "This is a very long string which needs \
to wrap across multiple lines because \
otherwise my code is unreadable.";

Mindkét forma a példában azonos sztringek létrehozását eredményezi.

Leírás

A stringek szöveges formában ábrázolt adatok tárolására használhatók. A leggyakoribb sztringműveletek közé tartozik a hossz vizsgálata, azok felépítése és összefűzése a + és += sztring operátorokkal, alfüzérek meglétének és helyének vizsgálata a indexOf() metódussal, illetve alfüzérek lekérdezése a substring() metódussal.

Karakter hozzáférés

Kétféle mód van egy sztringben az egyes karakterekhez vakó hozzáféréshez. Az egyik a charAt() metódus:

return 'macska'.charAt(1); // "a"-val tér vissza

A másik mód (bevezetve az ECMAScript 5-ben) tömbszerű objektumként kezeli a sztringet, ahol az egyes karaktereknem számindexek felelnek meg:

return 'macska'[1]; // "a"-val tér vissza

Törölni vagy megváltoztatni e tulajdonságokat karakter hozzáféréssel nem lehet a szögletes zárójeles jelölés esetén. A szóban forgó tulajdonságok nem írhatók és nem is konfigurálhatók. (Lásd a Object.defineProperty() cikket további információért.)

Sztringek összehasonlítása

C fejlesztőknek ismerős lehet a strcmp() függvény sztringek összehasonlításához. A JavaScript-ben a kisebb és nagyobb operátorok használhatók:

var a = 'a';
var b = 'b';
if (a < b) { // true
  console.log(a + ' kisebb, mint ' + b);
} else if (a > b) {
  console.log(a + ' nagyobb, mint ' + b);
} else {
  console.log(a + ' és ' + b + ' egyenlők.');
}

Hasonlót eredményez a localeCompare() metódus, amelyet a String példányok örökölnek.

Sztring primitívek és String objektumok megkülönböztetése

Jegyezzük meg, hogy a JavaScript különbséget tesz String objektumok és primitív sztring értékek között. (Ugyanez igaz Boolean és Number objektumokra.)

Sztringliterálok (egyszeri vagy kettős idézőjellel jelölve) és a String hívásából visszatérő, nem konstruktor kontextusból (azaz, nem a new kulcsszó használatával) kapott sztringek primitív sztringek. A JavaScript automatikusan String objektumokká alakítja a primitíveket, hogy eképpen a String objektum metódusai primitív sztringeken is használhatók legyenek. Amikor primitív sztringen hívódik metódus vagy tulajdonság lekérdezés, a JavaScript automatikusan String objektummá alakítja a sztringet és így hívja meg a metódust, illetve a lekérdezést.

var s_prim = 'foo';
var s_obj = new String(s_prim);

console.log(typeof s_prim); // Konzol kimenet: "string"
console.log(typeof s_obj);  // Konzol kimenet: "object"

Sztring primitívek és String objektumok az eval() használatakor is különböző eredményt adnak. Az eval számára átadott primitívek forráskódként vannak kezelve, míg a String objektumok, mint bármely más átadott objektum esetén, az objektum visszaadását eredményezik. Például:

var s1 = '2 + 2';             // létrehoz egy sztring primitívet
var s2 = new String('2 + 2'); // létrehoz egy String objektumot
console.log(eval(s1));        // a 4 számmal tér vissza
console.log(eval(s2));        // a "2 + 2" sztringgel tér vissza

Ezen okok miatt a kód hibás működését okozhatja, amikor String a kód String objektumot kap, miközben primitív sztringet vár, bár általában nem szükséges a fejlesztőknek ezzel törődni.

Egy String objektum mindig átalakítható a primitív megfelelőjére a  valueOf() metódussal.

console.log(eval(s2.valueOf())); // 4-et ad vissza
Megjegyzés: Egy másik JavaScript-ben lehetséges megközelítésére a sztringeknek, lásd a StringView — a C-like representation of strings based on typed arrays cikket.

Tulajdonságok

String.prototype
Tulajdonságok hozzáadását engedélyezi egy String objektumhoz.

Metódusok

String.fromCharCode()
Unicode értékek meghatározott sorozatával megadott sztringgel tér vissza.
String.fromCodePoint()
Kódpontok meghatározott sorozatával megadott sztringgel tér vissza.
String.raw()
Nyers sablon sztring szerint létrehozott sztringgel tér vissza.

String generikus metódusok

A String generikusok nem szabványosak, elavultak és a közeljövőben törlésre kerülnek.

String példánymetódusok a JavaScript 1.6 óta elérhetők Firefox-ban (nem része az ECMAScript szabványnak) a String objektumon bármely objektumon String metódusok alkalmazására:

var num = 15;
console.log(String.replace(num, "5", "2"));

A String generikusokról való áttéréshez lásd a Warning: String.x is deprecated; use String.prototype.x instead cikket.

Tömbök generikusai (Generics) a tömb (Array) metódusokra is elérhetők.

String példányok

Tulajdonságok

Metódusok

HTML-hez nem kapcsolódó metódusok

HTML wrapper methods

Példák

String konverzió

A String használható egy biztonságosabb toString() alternatívaként, mivel null, undefined, és symbol objektumokra is használható. Például:

var outputStrings = [];
for (var i = 0, n = inputValues.length; i < n; ++i) {
  outputStrings.push(String(inputValues[i]));
}

Specifikációk

Specificáció Státusz Megjegyzés
ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'String' in that specification.
Living Standard
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'String' in that specification.
Standard
ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'String' in that specification.
Standard
ECMAScript 1st Edition (ECMA-262) Standard Kezdeti definíció.

Böngésző kompatibilitás

Update compatibility data on GitHub
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localeCompare.optionsChrome Full support 24Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 29IE Full support 11Opera Full support 15Safari Full support 10WebView Android No support NoChrome Android Full support 26Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS Full support 10Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.5nodejs Full support 0.12
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toLocaleLowerCaseChrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 5.5Opera Full support 4Safari Full support 1.3WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
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Notes
Notes Before version 13.0.0, only the locale data for en-US is available by default. When other locales are specified, the function silently falls back to en-US. To make full ICU (locale) data available for versions prior to 13, see Node.js documentation on the --with-intl option and how to provide the data.
toLocaleUpperCaseChrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 5.5Opera Full support 4Safari Full support 1.3WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
toLocaleUpperCase.localeChrome Full support 58Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 55IE Full support 6Opera Full support 45Safari Full support 10WebView Android Full support 58Chrome Android Full support 58Firefox Android Full support 55Opera Android Full support 42Safari iOS Full support 10Samsung Internet Android Full support 7.0nodejs Full support 13.0.0
Full support 13.0.0
Partial support 0.12
Notes
Notes Before version 13.0.0, only the locale data for en-US is available by default. When other locales are specified, the function silently falls back to en-US. To make full ICU (locale) data available for versions prior to 13, see Node.js documentation on the --with-intl option and how to provide the data.
toLowerCaseChrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 3Opera Full support 3Safari Full support 1WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
toSource
Non-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox No support 1 — 74
Notes
No support 1 — 74
Notes
Notes Starting in Firefox 74, toSource() is no longer available for use by web content. It is still allowed for internal and privileged code.
IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs No support No
toStringChrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 3Opera Full support 3Safari Full support 1WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
toUpperCaseChrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 3Opera Full support 3Safari Full support 1WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
trimChrome Full support 4Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 3.5IE Full support 9Opera Full support 10.5Safari Full support 5WebView Android Full support ≤37Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 11Safari iOS Full support 5Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
trimEndChrome Full support 66
Full support 66
Full support 4
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
Edge Full support 12
Alternate Name
Full support 12
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
Firefox Full support 61
Full support 61
Full support 3.5
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
IE No support NoOpera Full support 53
Full support 53
Full support 15
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
Safari Full support 12WebView Android Full support 66
Full support 66
Full support ≤37
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
Chrome Android Full support 66
Full support 66
Full support 18
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
Firefox Android Full support 61
Full support 61
Full support 4
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
Opera Android Full support 47
Full support 47
Full support 14
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
Safari iOS Full support 12Samsung Internet Android Full support 9.0
Full support 9.0
Full support 1.0
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
nodejs Full support 10.0.0
Full support 10.0.0
Full support 0.12
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimRight
trimStartChrome Full support 66
Full support 66
Full support 4
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Edge Full support 12
Alternate Name
Full support 12
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Firefox Full support 61
Full support 61
Full support 3.5
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
IE No support NoOpera Full support 53
Full support 53
Full support 15
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Safari Full support 12WebView Android Full support 66
Full support 66
Full support ≤37
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Chrome Android Full support 66
Full support 66
Full support 18
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Firefox Android Full support 61
Full support 61
Full support 4
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Opera Android Full support 47
Full support 47
Full support 14
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Safari iOS Full support 12Samsung Internet Android Full support 9.0
Full support 9.0
Full support 1.0
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
nodejs Full support 10.0.0
Full support 10.0.0
Full support 0.12
Alternate Name
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: trimLeft
Unicode code point escapes \u{xxxxxx}Chrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 40IE Full support 4Opera Full support 4Safari Full support 1WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 40Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
valueOfChrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 1IE Full support 4Opera Full support 3Safari Full support 1WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 1Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support 0.1.100
@@iteratorChrome Full support 38Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 36
Full support 36
No support 27 — 36
Notes Alternate Name
Notes A placeholder property named @@iterator is used.
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: @@iterator
No support 17 — 27
Notes Alternate Name
Notes A placeholder property named iterator is used.
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: iterator
IE No support NoOpera Full support 25Safari Full support 9WebView Android Full support 38Chrome Android Full support 38Firefox Android Full support 36
Full support 36
No support 27 — 36
Notes Alternate Name
Notes A placeholder property named @@iterator is used.
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: @@iterator
No support 17 — 27
Notes Alternate Name
Notes A placeholder property named iterator is used.
Alternate Name Uses the non-standard name: iterator
Opera Android Full support 25Safari iOS Full support 9Samsung Internet Android Full support 3.0nodejs Full support 0.12

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
Uses a non-standard name.
Uses a non-standard name.

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