The Math.random() function returns a floating-point, pseudo-random number in the range 0–1 (inclusive of 0, but not 1) with approximately uniform distribution over that range — which you can then scale to your desired range. The implementation selects the initial seed to the random number generation algorithm; it cannot be chosen or reset by the user.

Math.random() does not provide cryptographically secure random numbers. Do not use them for anything related to security. Use the Web Crypto API instead, and more precisely the window.crypto.getRandomValues() method.

Syntax

Math.random()

Return value

A floating-point, pseudo-random number between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).

Examples

Note that as numbers in JavaScript are IEEE 754 floating point numbers with round-to-nearest-even behavior, the ranges claimed for the functions below (excluding the one for Math.random() itself) aren't exact. If extremely large bounds are chosen (253 or higher), it's possible in extremely rare cases to calculate the usually-excluded upper bound.

Getting a random number between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive)

function getRandom() {
  return Math.random();
}

Getting a random number between two values

This example returns a random number between the specified values. The returned value is no lower than (and may possibly equal) min, and is less than (and not equal) max.

function getRandomArbitrary(min, max) {
  return Math.random() * (max - min) + min;
}

Getting a random integer between two values

This example returns a random integer between the specified values. The value is no lower than min (or the next integer greater than min if min isn't an integer), and is less than (but not equal to) max.

function getRandomInt(min, max) {
  min = Math.ceil(min);
  max = Math.floor(max);
  return Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min)) + min; //The maximum is exclusive and the minimum is inclusive
}

It might be tempting to use Math.round() to accomplish that, but doing so would cause your random numbers to follow a non-uniform distribution, which may not be acceptable for your needs.

Getting a random integer between two values, inclusive

While the getRandomInt() function above is inclusive at the minimum, it's exclusive at the maximum. What if you need the results to be inclusive at both the minimum and the maximum? The getRandomIntInclusive() function below accomplishes that.

function getRandomIntInclusive(min, max) {
  min = Math.ceil(min);
  max = Math.floor(max);
  return Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1)) + min; //The maximum is inclusive and the minimum is inclusive 
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 1st Edition (ECMA-262) Standard Initial definition. JavaScript 1.0 (UNIX Only) / JavaScript 1.1 (All platforms).
ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Math.random' in that specification.
Standard  
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Math.random' in that specification.
Standard  
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Math.random' in that specification.
Draft  

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobileServer
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidiOS SafariSamsung InternetNode.js
Basic supportChrome Full support YesEdge Full support YesFirefox Full support 1IE Full support YesOpera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yesnodejs Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support