The filter() method of Array instances creates a shallow copy of a portion of a given array, filtered down to just the elements from the given array that pass the test implemented by the provided function.

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filter(callbackFn, thisArg)



A function to execute for each element in the array. It should return a truthy value to keep the element in the resulting array, and a falsy value otherwise. The function is called with the following arguments:


The current element being processed in the array.


The index of the current element being processed in the array.


The array filter() was called upon.

thisArg Optional

A value to use as this when executing callbackFn. See iterative methods.

Return value

A shallow copy of the given array containing just the elements that pass the test. If no elements pass the test, an empty array is returned.


The filter() method is an iterative method. It calls a provided callbackFn function once for each element in an array, and constructs a new array of all the values for which callbackFn returns a truthy value. Array elements which do not pass the callbackFn test are not included in the new array.

callbackFn is invoked only for array indexes which have assigned values. It is not invoked for empty slots in sparse arrays.

The filter() method is a copying method. It does not alter this but instead returns a shallow copy that contains the same elements as the ones from the original array (with some filtered out). However, the function provided as callbackFn can mutate the array. Note, however, that the length of the array is saved before the first invocation of callbackFn. Therefore:

  • callbackFn will not visit any elements added beyond the array's initial length when the call to filter() began.
  • Changes to already-visited indexes do not cause callbackFn to be invoked on them again.
  • If an existing, yet-unvisited element of the array is changed by callbackFn, its value passed to the callbackFn will be the value at the time that element gets visited. Deleted elements are not visited.

Warning: Concurrent modifications of the kind described above frequently lead to hard-to-understand code and are generally to be avoided (except in special cases).

The filter() method is generic. It only expects the this value to have a length property and integer-keyed properties.


Filtering out all small values

The following example uses filter() to create a filtered array that has all elements with values less than 10 removed.


function isBigEnough(value) {
  return value >= 10;

const filtered = [12, 5, 8, 130, 44].filter(isBigEnough);
// filtered is [12, 130, 44]

Find all prime numbers in an array

The following example returns all prime numbers in the array:


const array = [-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13];

function isPrime(num) {
  for (let i = 2; num > i; i++) {
    if (num % i === 0) {
      return false;
  return num > 1;

console.log(array.filter(isPrime)); // [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13]

Filtering invalid entries from JSON

The following example uses filter() to create a filtered JSON of all elements with non-zero, numeric id.


const arr = [
  { id: 15 },
  { id: -1 },
  { id: 0 },
  { id: 3 },
  { id: 12.2 },
  { id: null },
  { id: NaN },
  { id: "undefined" },

let invalidEntries = 0;

function filterByID(item) {
  if (Number.isFinite( && !== 0) {
    return true;
  return false;

const arrByID = arr.filter(filterByID);

console.log("Filtered Array\n", arrByID);
// Filtered Array
// [{ id: 15 }, { id: -1 }, { id: 3 }, { id: 12.2 }]

console.log("Number of Invalid Entries =", invalidEntries);
// Number of Invalid Entries = 5

Searching in array

Following example uses filter() to filter array content based on search criteria.


const fruits = ["apple", "banana", "grapes", "mango", "orange"];

 * Filter array items based on search criteria (query)
function filterItems(arr, query) {
  return arr.filter((el) => el.toLowerCase().includes(query.toLowerCase()));

console.log(filterItems(fruits, "ap")); // ['apple', 'grapes']
console.log(filterItems(fruits, "an")); // ['banana', 'mango', 'orange']

Using filter() on sparse arrays

filter() will skip empty slots.


console.log([1, , undefined].filter((x) => x === undefined)); // [undefined]
console.log([1, , undefined].filter((x) => x !== 2)); // [1, undefined]

Calling filter() on non-array objects

The filter() method reads the length property of this and then accesses each property whose key is a nonnegative integer less than length.


const arrayLike = {
  length: 3,
  0: "a",
  1: "b",
  2: "c",
  3: "a", // ignored by filter() since length is 3
console.log(, (x) => x <= "b"));
// [ 'a', 'b' ]

Affecting Initial Array (modifying, appending and deleting)

The following example tests the behavior of the filter method when the array is modified.


// Modifying each word
let words = ["spray", "limit", "exuberant", "destruction", "elite", "present"];

const modifiedWords = words.filter((word, index, arr) => {
  arr[index + 1] += " extra";
  return word.length < 6;

// Notice there are three words below length 6, but since they've been modified one is returned
// ["spray"]

// Appending new words
words = ["spray", "limit", "exuberant", "destruction", "elite", "present"];
const appendedWords = words.filter((word, index, arr) => {
  return word.length < 6;

// Only three fits the condition even though the `words` itself now has a lot more words with character length less than 6
// ["spray" ,"limit" ,"elite"]

// Deleting words
words = ["spray", "limit", "exuberant", "destruction", "elite", "present"];
const deleteWords = words.filter((word, index, arr) => {
  return word.length < 6;

// Notice 'elite' is not even obtained as it's been popped off 'words' before filter can even get there
// ["spray" ,"limit"]


ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-array.prototype.filter

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See also