Math.pow()

The Math.pow() method returns the value of a base raised to a power. That is

𝙼𝚊𝚝𝚑.𝚙𝚘𝚠 ( 𝚡 , 𝚢 ) = x y \mathtt{\operatorname{Math.pow}(x, y)} = x^y

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Syntax

Math.pow(base, exponent)

Parameters

base

The base number.

exponent

The exponent number.

Return value

A number representing base taken to the power of exponent. Returns NaN in one of the following cases:

  • base or exponent is NaN.
  • base is ±1 and exponent is ±Infinity.
  • base < 0 and exponent is not an integer.

Description

Math.pow() is equivalent to the ** operator, except Math.pow() only accepts numbers.

Because pow() is a static method of Math, use it as Math.pow(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created (Math is not a constructor).

Examples

Using Math.pow()

// Simple cases
Math.pow(7, 2); // 49
Math.pow(7, 3); // 343
Math.pow(2, 10); // 1024

// Fractional exponents
Math.pow(4, 0.5); // 2 (square root of 4)
Math.pow(8, 1 / 3); // 2 (cube root of 8)
Math.pow(2, 0.5); // 1.4142135623730951 (square root of 2)
Math.pow(2, 1 / 3); // 1.2599210498948732 (cube root of 2)

// Signed exponents
Math.pow(7, -2); // 0.02040816326530612 (1/49)
Math.pow(8, -1 / 3); // 0.5

// Signed bases
Math.pow(-7, 2); // 49 (squares are positive)
Math.pow(-7, 3); // -343 (cubes can be negative)
Math.pow(-7, 0.5); // NaN (negative numbers don't have a real square root)
// Due to "even" and "odd" roots laying close to each other,
// and limits in the floating number precision,
// negative bases with fractional exponents always return NaN,
// even when the mathematical result is real
Math.pow(-7, 1 / 3); // NaN

// Zero and infinity
Math.pow(0, 0); // 1 (anything ** ±0 is 1)
Math.pow(Infinity, 0.1); // Infinity (positive exponent)
Math.pow(Infinity, -1); // 0 (negative exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, 1); // -Infinity (positive odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, 1.5); // Infinity (positive exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, -1); // -0 (negative odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, -1.5); // 0 (negative exponent)
Math.pow(0, 1); // 0 (positive exponent)
Math.pow(0, -1); // Infinity (negative exponent)
Math.pow(-0, 1); // -0 (positive odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-0, 1.5); // 0 (positive exponent)
Math.pow(-0, -1); // -Infinity (negative odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-0, -1.5); // Infinity (negative exponent)
Math.pow(0.9, Infinity); // 0
Math.pow(1, Infinity); // NaN
Math.pow(1.1, Infinity); // Infinity
Math.pow(0.9, -Infinity); // Infinity
Math.pow(1, -Infinity); // NaN
Math.pow(1.1, -Infinity); // 0

Specifications

Specification
ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-math.pow

Browser compatibility

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See also