Math.pow()

BaselineWidely available

This feature is well established and works across many devices and browser versions. It’s been available across browsers since July 2015.

The `Math.pow()` static method returns the value of a base raised to a power. That is

$𝙼𝚊𝚝𝚑.𝚙𝚘𝚠 ( 𝚡 , 𝚢 ) = x y \mathtt{\operatorname{Math.pow}(x, y)} = x^y$

Syntax

js
``````Math.pow(base, exponent)
``````

Parameters

`base`

The base number.

`exponent`

The exponent number.

Return value

A number representing `base` taken to the power of `exponent`. Returns `NaN` in one of the following cases:

• `exponent` is `NaN`.
• `base` is `NaN` and `exponent` is not `0`.
• `base` is ±1 and `exponent` is ±`Infinity`.
• `base < 0` and `exponent` is not an integer.

Description

`Math.pow()` is equivalent to the `**` operator, except `Math.pow()` only accepts numbers.

`Math.pow(NaN, 0)` (and the equivalent `NaN ** 0`) is the only case where `NaN` doesn't propagate through mathematical operations — it returns `1` despite the operand being `NaN`. In addition, the behavior where `base` is 1 and `exponent` is non-finite (±Infinity or `NaN`) is different from IEEE 754, which specifies that the result should be 1, whereas JavaScript returns `NaN` to preserve backward compatibility with its original behavior.

Because `pow()` is a static method of `Math`, use it as `Math.pow()`, rather than as a method of a `Math` object you created (`Math` is not a constructor).

Examples

Using Math.pow()

js
``````// Simple cases
Math.pow(7, 2); // 49
Math.pow(7, 3); // 343
Math.pow(2, 10); // 1024

// Fractional exponents
Math.pow(4, 0.5); // 2 (square root of 4)
Math.pow(8, 1 / 3); // 2 (cube root of 8)
Math.pow(2, 0.5); // 1.4142135623730951 (square root of 2)
Math.pow(2, 1 / 3); // 1.2599210498948732 (cube root of 2)

// Signed exponents
Math.pow(7, -2); // 0.02040816326530612 (1/49)
Math.pow(8, -1 / 3); // 0.5

// Signed bases
Math.pow(-7, 2); // 49 (squares are positive)
Math.pow(-7, 3); // -343 (cubes can be negative)
Math.pow(-7, 0.5); // NaN (negative numbers don't have a real square root)
// Due to "even" and "odd" roots laying close to each other,
// and limits in the floating number precision,
// negative bases with fractional exponents always return NaN,
// even when the mathematical result is real
Math.pow(-7, 1 / 3); // NaN

// Zero and infinity
Math.pow(0, 0); // 1 (anything ** ±0 is 1)
Math.pow(Infinity, 0.1); // Infinity (positive exponent)
Math.pow(Infinity, -1); // 0 (negative exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, 1); // -Infinity (positive odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, 1.5); // Infinity (positive exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, -1); // -0 (negative odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-Infinity, -1.5); // 0 (negative exponent)
Math.pow(0, 1); // 0 (positive exponent)
Math.pow(0, -1); // Infinity (negative exponent)
Math.pow(-0, 1); // -0 (positive odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-0, 1.5); // 0 (positive exponent)
Math.pow(-0, -1); // -Infinity (negative odd integer exponent)
Math.pow(-0, -1.5); // Infinity (negative exponent)
Math.pow(0.9, Infinity); // 0
Math.pow(1, Infinity); // NaN
Math.pow(1.1, Infinity); // Infinity
Math.pow(0.9, -Infinity); // Infinity
Math.pow(1, -Infinity); // NaN
Math.pow(1.1, -Infinity); // 0

// NaN: only Math.pow(NaN, 0) does not result in NaN
Math.pow(NaN, 0); // 1
Math.pow(NaN, 1); // NaN
Math.pow(1, NaN); // NaN
``````

Specifications

Specification
ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-math.pow

Browser compatibility

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