# CanvasRenderingContext2D: arcTo() method

The `CanvasRenderingContext2D.arcTo()` method of the Canvas 2D API adds a circular arc to the current sub-path, using the given control points and radius. The arc is automatically connected to the path's latest point with a straight line if necessary, for example if the starting point and control points are in a line.

This method is commonly used for making rounded corners.

Note: You may get unexpected results when using a relatively large radius: the arc's connecting line will go in whatever direction it must to meet the specified radius.

## Syntax

js
``````arcTo(x1, y1, x2, y2, radius)
``````

### Parameters

`x1`

The x-axis coordinate of the first control point.

`y1`

The y-axis coordinate of the first control point.

`x2`

The x-axis coordinate of the second control point.

`y2`

The y-axis coordinate of the second control point.

`radius`

The arc's radius. Must be non-negative.

#### Usage notes

Assume P0 is the point on the path when `arcTo()` is called, P1 = (`x1`, `y1`) and P2 = (`x2`, `y2`) are the first and second control points, respectively, and r is the `radius` specified in the call:

• If r is negative, an `IndexSizeError` exception is raised.
• If r is 0, `arcTo()` behaves as if P0, P1, and P2 are collinear (in a line).
• In the case of all of the points being collinear, a line from P0 to P1 is drawn unless the points P0 and P1 are coincident (having the same coordinates), in which case nothing is drawn.

These conditions can be created in the Constructing an arcTo() path example below to see the results.

### Exceptions

`IndexSizeError` `DOMException`

Thrown if `radius` is a negative value.

## Examples

### How `arcTo()` works

One way to think about `arcTo()` is to imagine two straight segments: one from the starting point to a first control point, and another from there to a second control point. Without `arcTo()`, these two segments would form a sharp corner: `arcTo()` creates a circular arc at this corner and smooths it out. In other words, the arc is tangential to both segments.

#### HTML

html
``````<canvas id="canvas"></canvas>
``````

#### JavaScript

js
``````const canvas = document.getElementById("canvas");
const ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");

// Tangential lines
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.strokeStyle = "gray";
ctx.moveTo(200, 20);
ctx.lineTo(200, 130);
ctx.lineTo(50, 20);
ctx.stroke();

// Arc
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.strokeStyle = "black";
ctx.lineWidth = 5;
ctx.moveTo(200, 20);
ctx.arcTo(200, 130, 50, 20, 40);
ctx.stroke();

// Start point
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.fillStyle = "blue";
ctx.arc(200, 20, 5, 0, 2 * Math.PI);
ctx.fill();

// Control points
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.fillStyle = "red";
ctx.arc(200, 130, 5, 0, 2 * Math.PI); // Control point one
ctx.arc(50, 20, 5, 0, 2 * Math.PI); // Control point two
ctx.fill();
``````

#### Result

In this example, the path created by `arcTo()` is thick and black. Tangent lines are gray, control points are red, and the start point is blue.

### Creating a rounded corner

This example creates a rounded corner using `arcTo()`. This is one of the method's most common uses.

#### HTML

html
``````<canvas id="canvas"></canvas>
``````

#### JavaScript

The arc begins at the point specified by `moveTo()`: (230, 20). It is shaped to fit control points at (90, 130) and (20, 20), and has a radius of 50. The `lineTo()` method connects the arc to (20, 20) with a straight line. Note that the arc's second control point and the point specified by `lineTo()` are the same, which produces a totally smooth corner.

js
``````const canvas = document.getElementById("canvas");
const ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
const p0 = { x: 230, y: 20 };
const p1 = { x: 90, y: 130 };
const p2 = { x: 20, y: 20 };

const labelPoint = (p) => {
const offset = 10;
ctx.fillText(`(\${p.x},\${p.y})`, p.x + offset, p.y + offset);
};

ctx.beginPath();
ctx.lineWidth = 4;
ctx.font = "1em sans-serif";
ctx.moveTo(p0.x, p0.y);
ctx.arcTo(p1.x, p1.y, p2.x, p2.y, 50);
ctx.lineTo(p2.x, p2.y);

labelPoint(p0);
labelPoint(p1);
labelPoint(p2);

ctx.stroke();
``````

### Result of a large radius

If you use a relatively large radius, the arc may appear in a place you didn't expect. In this example, the arc's connecting line goes above, instead of below, the coordinate specified by `moveTo()`. This happens because the radius is too large for the arc to fit entirely below the starting point.

#### HTML

html
``````<canvas id="canvas"></canvas>
``````

#### JavaScript

js
``````const canvas = document.getElementById("canvas");
const ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");

ctx.beginPath();
ctx.moveTo(180, 90);
ctx.arcTo(180, 130, 110, 130, 130);
ctx.lineTo(110, 130);
ctx.stroke();
``````

### Constructing an arcTo() path

The demo shows the semi-infinite lines and circle with center C tangent to the lines at T1 and T2 used to determine the path rendered by `arcTo()`.

Note that `arcTo` will create a straight line from P0 to P1 when all points are in a line. Additionally, nothing is drawn by `arcTo` if P0 and P1 have the same coordinates.

Besides being able to set the arc radius with the slider, the initial point P0 and control points P1 and P2 can be moved by dragging them with the mouse with the left button down. The numeric values can also be edited, and the arrow keys can be used to change an underlined element that is in focus.

### Animating `arcTo()` drawing

For this example, you can play around with the arc radius to see how the path changes. The path is drawn from the starting point p0 using `arcTo()` with control points p1 and p2 and a radius that varies from 0 to the maximum radius selected with the slider. Then a `lineTo()` call completes the path to p2.

#### HTML

html
``````<div>
</div>
<canvas id="canvas"></canvas>
``````

#### JavaScript

js
``````const canvas = document.getElementById("canvas");
const ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
control.oninput = () => {
};

const p1 = { x: 100, y: 100 };
const p2 = { x: 150, y: 50 };
const p3 = { x: 200, y: 100 };
let radius = control.value; // match with init control value

function labelPoint(p, offset, i = 0) {
const { x, y } = offset;
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.arc(p.x, p.y, 2, 0, Math.PI * 2);
ctx.fill();
ctx.fillText(`\${i}:(\${p.x}, \${p.y})`, p.x + x, p.y + y);
}

function drawPoints(points) {
points.forEach((p, i) => {
labelPoint(p, { x: 0, y: -20 }, `p\${i}`);
});
}

// Draw arc
function drawArc([p0, p1, p2], r) {
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.moveTo(p0.x, p0.y);
ctx.arcTo(p1.x, p1.y, p2.x, p2.y, r);
ctx.lineTo(p2.x, p2.y);
ctx.stroke();
}

function loop(t) {
const angle = (t / 1000) % (2 * Math.PI);
const rr = Math.abs(Math.cos(angle) * radius);

ctx.clearRect(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);

drawArc([p1, p2, p3], rr);
drawPoints([p1, p2, p3]);
requestAnimationFrame(loop);
}

loop(0);
``````

## Specifications

Specification
HTML Standard
# dom-context-2d-arcto-dev

## Browser compatibility

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