CanvasRenderingContext2D.scale()

The CanvasRenderingContext2D.scale() method of the Canvas 2D API adds a scaling transformation to the canvas units horizontally and/or vertically.

By default, one unit on the canvas is exactly one pixel. A scaling transformation modifies this behavior. For instance, a scaling factor of 0.5 results in a unit size of 0.5 pixels; shapes are thus drawn at half the normal size. Similarly, a scaling factor of 2.0 increases the unit size so that one unit becomes two pixels; shapes are thus drawn at twice the normal size.

Syntax

void ctx.scale(x, y);

Parameters

x
Scaling factor in the horizontal direction. A negative value flips pixels across the vertical axis. A value of 1 results in no horizontal scaling.
y
Scaling factor in the vertical direction. A negative value flips pixels across the horizontal axis. A value of 1 results in no vertical scaling.

Examples

Scaling a shape

This example draws a scaled rectangle. A non-scaled rectangle is then drawn for comparison.

HTML

<canvas id="canvas"></canvas>

JavaScript

The rectangle has a specified width of 8 and a height of 20. The transformation matrix scales it by 9x horizontally and by 3x vertically. Thus, its final size is a width of 72 and a height of 60.

Notice that its position on the canvas also changes. Since its specified corner is (10, 10), its rendered corner becomes (90, 30).

const canvas = document.getElementById('canvas');
const ctx = canvas.getContext('2d');

// Scaled rectangle
ctx.scale(9, 3);
ctx.fillStyle = 'red';
ctx.fillRect(10, 10, 8, 20);

// Reset current transformation matrix to the identity matrix
ctx.setTransform(1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0);

// Non-scaled rectangle
ctx.fillStyle = 'gray';
ctx.fillRect(10, 10, 8, 20);

Result

The scaled rectangle is red, and the non-scaled rectangle is gray.

Flipping things horizontally or vertically

You can use scale(-1, 1) to flip the context horizontally and scale(1, -1) to flip it vertically. In this example, the words "Hello world!" are flipped horizontally.

Note that the call to fillText() specifies a negative x coordinate. This is to adjust for the negative scaling factor: -280 * -1 becomes 280, and text is drawn leftwards from that point.

HTML

<canvas id="canvas"></canvas>

JavaScript

const canvas = document.getElementById('canvas');
const ctx = canvas.getContext('2d');

ctx.scale(-1, 1);
ctx.font = '48px serif';
ctx.fillText('Hello world!', -280, 90);
ctx.setTransform(1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0);

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of 'CanvasRenderingContext2D.scale' in that specification.
Living Standard  

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
Basic supportChrome Full support YesEdge Full support 12Firefox Full support YesIE Full support YesOpera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support YesOpera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

Contributors to this page: mfluehr, servinlp, fscholz, nmve, erikadoyle
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