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从ECMAScript 2015 开始,JavaScript 获得对ProxyReflect对象的支持,允许你拦截并定义基本语言操作的自定义行为(例如,属性查找,赋值,枚举,函数调用等)。借助这两个对象,你可以在 JavaScript 元级别进行编程。

代理

在ECMAScript 6中引入Proxy对象可以拦截某些操作并实现自定义行为。 例如获取一个对象上的属性:

let handler = {
  get: function(target, name){
    return name in target ? target[name] : 42;
}};

let p = new Proxy({}, handler);
p.a = 1;

console.log(p.a, p.b); // 1, 42

Proxy对象定义了一个目标(这里是一个空对象)和一个实现了get陷阱的 handle 对象。这里,代理的对象在获取未定义的属性时不会返回undefined,而是返回 42。

更多例子参见Proxy页面 。

术语

在讨论代理的功能时使用以下术语。

handler
包含陷阱的占位符对象。
traps
提供属性访问的方法。这类似于操作系统中陷阱的概念。
target
代理虚拟化的对象。它通常用作代理的存储后端。根据目标验证关于对象不可扩展性或不可配置属性的不变量(保持不变的语义)。
invariants
实现自定义操作时保持不变的语义称为不变量。如果你违反处理程序的不变量,则会抛出一个TypeError

句柄和陷阱

以下表格中总结了Proxy对象可用的陷阱。详细的解释和例子请看参考页

Handler / trap Interceptions Invariants
handler.getPrototypeOf() Object.getPrototypeOf()
Reflect.getPrototypeOf()
__proto__
Object.prototype.isPrototypeOf()
instanceof
  • getPrototypeO方法一定返回一个对象或null.
  • 如果 target 不可扩展,Object.getPrototypeOf(proxy) 必须返回和 Object.getPrototypeOf(target)一样的值。
handler.setPrototypeOf() Object.setPrototypeOf()
Reflect.setPrototypeOf()
如果 target 不可扩展,prototype 参数必须与Object.getPrototypeOf(target)的值相同。
handler.isExtensible() Object.isExtensible()
Reflect.isExtensible()
Object.isExtensible(proxy) 必须返回和Object.isExtensible(target)一样的值。
handler.preventExtensions() Object.preventExtensions()
Reflect.preventExtensions()
Object.preventExtensions(proxy) only returns true if Object.isExtensible(proxy) is false.
handler.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor()
Reflect.getOwnPropertyDescriptor()
  • getOwnPropertyDescriptor must return an object or undefined.
  • A property cannot be reported as non-existent, if it exists as a non-configurable own property of the target object.
  • A property cannot be reported as non-existent, if it exists as an own property of the target object and the target object is not extensible.
  • A property cannot be reported as existent, if it does not exists as an own property of the target object and the target object is not extensible.
  • A property cannot be reported as non-configurable, if it does not exists as an own property of the target object or if it exists as a configurable own property of the target object.
  • The result of Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(target) can be applied to the target object using Object.defineProperty and will not throw an exception.
handler.defineProperty() Object.defineProperty()
Reflect.defineProperty()
  • A property cannot be added, if the target object is not extensible.
  • A property cannot be added as or modified to be non-configurable, if it does not exists as a non-configurable own property of the target object.
  • A property may not be non-configurable, if a corresponding configurable property of the target object exists.
  • If a property has a corresponding target object property then Object.defineProperty(target, prop, descriptor) will not throw an exception.
  • In strict mode, a false return value from the defineProperty handler will throw a TypeError exception.
handler.has() Property query: foo in proxy
Inherited property query: foo in Object.create(proxy)
Reflect.has()
  • A property cannot be reported as non-existent, if it exists as a non-configurable own property of the target object.
  • A property cannot be reported as non-existent, if it exists as an own property of the target object and the target object is not extensible.
handler.get() Property access: proxy[foo]and proxy.bar
Inherited property access: Object.create(proxy)[foo]
Reflect.get()
  • The value reported for a property must be the same as the value of the corresponding target object property if the target object property is a non-writable, non-configurable data property.
  • The value reported for a property must be undefined if the corresponding target object property is non-configurable accessor property that has undefined as its [[Get]] attribute.
handler.set() Property assignment: proxy[foo] = bar and proxy.foo = bar
Inherited property assignment: Object.create(proxy)[foo] = bar
Reflect.set()
  • Cannot change the value of a property to be different from the value of the corresponding target object property if the corresponding target object property is a non-writable, non-configurable data property.
  • Cannot set the value of a property if the corresponding target object property is a non-configurable accessor property that has undefined as its [[Set]] attribute.
  • In strict mode, a false return value from the set handler will throw a TypeError exception.
handler.deleteProperty() Property deletion: delete proxy[foo] and delete proxy.foo
Reflect.deleteProperty()
A property cannot be deleted, if it exists as a non-configurable own property of the target object.
handler.enumerate() Property enumeration / for...in: for (var name in proxy) {...}
Reflect.enumerate()
The enumerate method must return an object.
handler.ownKeys() Object.getOwnPropertyNames()
Object.getOwnPropertySymbols()
Object.keys()
Reflect.ownKeys()
  • The result of ownKeys is a List.
  • The Type of each result List element is either String or Symbol.
  • The result List must contain the keys of all non-configurable own properties of the target object.
  • If the target object is not extensible, then the result List must contain all the keys of the own properties of the target object and no other values.
handler.apply() proxy(..args)
Function.prototype.apply() and Function.prototype.call()
Reflect.apply()
There are no invariants for the handler.apply method.
handler.construct() new proxy(...args)
Reflect.construct()
结果一定是一个Object

撤销 Proxy

Proxy.revocable()方法被用来创建可撤销的Proxy对象。这意味着代理可以通过revoke函数来撤销并且关闭代理。此后,代理上的任意的操作都会导致TypeError

var revocable = Proxy.revocable({}, {
  get: function(target, name) {
    return "[[" + name + "]]";
  }
});
var proxy = revocable.proxy;
console.log(proxy.foo); // "[[foo]]"

revocable.revoke();

console.log(proxy.foo); // TypeError is thrown
proxy.foo = 1           // TypeError again
delete proxy.foo;       // still TypeError
typeof proxy            // "object", typeof doesn't trigger any trap

反射

Reflect 是一个内置对象,它提供了可拦截JavaScript操作的方法。该方法和代理句柄类似,但Reflect方法并不是一个函数对象。

Reflect有助于将默认操作从处理程序转发到目标。

Reflect.has()为例,你可以将in运算符作为函数:

Reflect.has(Object, "assign"); // true

更好的apply 函数

在ES5中,你通常使用 Function.prototype.apply() 方法调用一个具有给定this值和arguments数组(或类数组对象) 的函数。

Function.prototype.apply.call(Math.floor, undefined, [1.75]);

使用Reflect.apply,这变得不那么冗长和容易理解:

Reflect.apply(Math.floor, undefined, [1.75]); 
// 1;

Reflect.apply(String.fromCharCode, undefined, [104, 101, 108, 108, 111]);
// "hello"

Reflect.apply(RegExp.prototype.exec, /ab/, ['confabulation']).index;
// 4

Reflect.apply(''.charAt, 'ponies', [3]);
// "i"

检查属性定义是否成功

使用Object.defineProperty,如果成功返回一个对象,否则抛出一个 TypeError,你将使用 try...catch 块来捕获定义属性时发生的任何错误。因为Reflect.defineProperty返回一个布尔值表示的成功状态,你可以在这里使用if...else 块:

if (Reflect.defineProperty(target, property, attributes)) {
  // success
} else {
  // failure
}

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