The Map object holds key-value pairs and remembers the original insertion order of the keys. Any value (both objects and primitive values (en-US)) may be used as either a key or a value.


A Map object iterates its elements in insertion order — a for...of (en-US) loop returns an array of [key, value] for each iteration.

Key equality

  • Key equality is based on the sameValueZero algorithm.
  • NaN is considered the same as NaN (even though NaN !== NaN) and all other values are considered equal according to the semantics of the === operator.
  • In the current ECMAScript specification, -0 and +0 are considered equal, although this was not so in earlier drafts. See "Value equality for -0 and 0" in the Browser compatibility table for details.

Objects vs. Maps

Object is similar to Map—both let you set keys to values, retrieve those values, delete keys, and detect whether something is stored at a key. For this reason (and because there were no built-in alternatives), Objects have been used as Maps historically.

However, there are important differences that make Map preferable in certain cases:

Map Object
Accidental Keys A Map does not contain any keys by default. It only contains what is explicitly put into it.

An Object has a prototype, so it contains default keys that could collide with your own keys if you're not careful.

Note: As of ES5, this can be bypassed by using Object.create(null) (en-US), but this is seldom done.

Key Types A Map's keys can be any value (including functions, objects, or any primitive). The keys of an Object must be either a String or a Symbol.
Key Order

The keys in Map are ordered. Thus, when iterating over it, a Map object returns keys in order of insertion.

The keys of an Object are not ordered.

Note: Since ECMAScript 2015, objects do preserve creation order for string and Symbol keys. In JavaScript engines that comply with the ECMAScript 2015 spec, iterating over an object with only string keys will yield the keys in order of insertion.

Size The number of items in a Map is easily retrieved from its size (en-US) property. The number of items in an Object must be determined manually.
Iteration A Map is an iterable, so it can be directly iterated. Iterating over an Object requires obtaining its keys in some fashion and iterating over them.

Performs better in scenarios involving frequent additions and removals of key-value pairs.

Not optimized for frequent additions and removals of key-value pairs.

Setting object properties

Setting Object properties works for Map objects as well, and can cause considerable confusion.

Therefore, this appears to work in a way:

let wrongMap = new Map()
wrongMap['bla'] = 'blaa'
wrongMap['bla2'] = 'blaaa2'

console.log(wrongMap)  // Map { bla: 'blaa', bla2: 'blaaa2' }

But that way of setting a property does not interact with the Map data structure. It uses the feature of the generic object. The value of 'bla' is not stored in the Map for queries. Othere operations on the data fail:

wrongMap.has('bla')    // false
wrongMap.delete('bla') // false
console.log(wrongMap)  // Map { bla: 'blaa', bla2: 'blaaa2' }

The correct usage for storing data in the Map is through the set(key, value) method.

let contacts = new Map()
contacts.set('Jessie', {phone: "213-555-1234", address: "123 N 1st Ave"})
contacts.has('Jessie') // true
contacts.get('Hilary') // undefined
contacts.set('Hilary', {phone: "617-555-4321", address: "321 S 2nd St"})
contacts.get('Jessie') // {phone: "213-555-1234", address: "123 N 1st Ave"}
contacts.delete('Raymond') // false
contacts.delete('Jessie') // true
console.log(contacts.size) // 1


Creates a new Map object.

Static properties

get Map[@@species] (en-US)
The constructor function that is used to create derived objects.

Instance properties

Map.prototype.size (en-US)
Returns the number of key/value pairs in the Map object.

Instance methods

Map.prototype.clear() (en-US)
Removes all key-value pairs from the Map object.
Map.prototype.delete(key) (en-US)
Returns true if an element in the Map object existed and has been removed, or false if the element does not exist. Map.prototype.has(key) will return false afterwards.
Map.prototype.entries() (en-US)
Returns a new Iterator object that contains an array of [key, value] for each element in the Map object in insertion order.
Map.prototype.forEach(callbackFn[, thisArg]) (en-US)
Calls callbackFn once for each key-value pair present in the Map object, in insertion order. If a thisArg parameter is provided to forEach, it will be used as the this value for each callback.
Map.prototype.get(key) (en-US)
Returns the value associated to the key, or undefined if there is none.
Map.prototype.has(key) (en-US)
Returns a boolean asserting whether a value has been associated to the key in the Map object or not.
Map.prototype.keys() (en-US)
Returns a new Iterator object that contains the keys for each element in the Map object in insertion order.
Map.prototype.set(key, value) (en-US)
Sets the value for the key in the Map object. Returns the Map object.
Map.prototype.values() (en-US)
Returns a new Iterator object that contains the values for each element in the Map object in insertion order.
Map.prototype[@@iterator]() (en-US)
Returns a new Iterator object that contains an array of [key, value] for each element in the Map object in insertion order.


Using the Map object

let myMap = new Map()

let keyString = 'a string'
let keyObj    = {}
let keyFunc   = function() {}

// setting the values
myMap.set(keyString, "value associated with 'a string'")
myMap.set(keyObj, 'value associated with keyObj')
myMap.set(keyFunc, 'value associated with keyFunc')

myMap.size              // 3

// getting the values
myMap.get(keyString)    // "value associated with 'a string'"
myMap.get(keyObj)       // "value associated with keyObj"
myMap.get(keyFunc)      // "value associated with keyFunc"

myMap.get('a string')    // "value associated with 'a string'"
                         // because keyString === 'a string'
myMap.get({})            // undefined, because keyObj !== {}
myMap.get(function() {}) // undefined, because keyFunc !== function () {}

Using NaN as Map keys

NaN can also be used as a key. Even though every NaN is not equal to itself (NaN !== NaN is true), the following example works because NaNs are indistinguishable from each other:

let myMap = new Map()
myMap.set(NaN, 'not a number')

// "not a number"

let otherNaN = Number('foo')
// "not a number"

Iterating Map with for..of

Maps can be iterated using a for..of loop:

let myMap = new Map()
myMap.set(0, 'zero')
myMap.set(1, 'one')

for (let [key, value] of myMap) {
  console.log(key + ' = ' + value)
// 0 = zero
// 1 = one

for (let key of myMap.keys()) {
// 0
// 1

for (let value of myMap.values()) {
// zero
// one

for (let [key, value] of myMap.entries()) {
  console.log(key + ' = ' + value)
// 0 = zero
// 1 = one

Iterating Map with forEach()

Maps can be iterated using the forEach() (en-US) method:

myMap.forEach(function(value, key) {
  console.log(key + ' = ' + value)
// 0 = zero
// 1 = one

Relation with Array objects

let kvArray = [['key1', 'value1'], ['key2', 'value2']]

// Use the regular Map constructor to transform a 2D key-value Array into a map
let myMap = new Map(kvArray)

myMap.get('key1') // returns "value1"

// Use Array.from() to transform a map into a 2D key-value Array
console.log(Array.from(myMap)) // Will show you exactly the same Array as kvArray

// A succinct way to do the same, using the spread syntax

// Or use the keys() or values() iterators, and convert them to an array
console.log(Array.from(myMap.keys())) // ["key1", "key2"]

Cloning and merging Maps

Just like Arrays, Maps can be cloned:

let original = new Map([
  [1, 'one']

let clone = new Map(original)

console.log(clone.get(1))       // one
console.log(original === clone) // false (useful for shallow comparison)

Important: Keep in mind that the data itself is not cloned.

Maps can be merged, maintaining key uniqueness:

let first = new Map([
  [1, 'one'],
  [2, 'two'],
  [3, 'three'],

let second = new Map([
  [1, 'uno'],
  [2, 'dos']

// Merge two maps. The last repeated key wins.
// Spread operator essentially converts a Map to an Array
let merged = new Map([...first, ...second])

console.log(merged.get(1)) // uno
console.log(merged.get(2)) // dos
console.log(merged.get(3)) // three

Maps can be merged with Arrays, too:

let first = new Map([
  [1, 'one'],
  [2, 'two'],
  [3, 'three'],

let second = new Map([
  [1, 'uno'],
  [2, 'dos']

// Merge maps with an array. The last repeated key wins.
let merged = new Map([...first, ...second, [1, 'eins']])

console.log(merged.get(1)) // eins
console.log(merged.get(2)) // dos
console.log(merged.get(3)) // three


ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Map' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also