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The HTML <pre> element represents preformatted text which is to be presented exactly as written in the HTML file. The text is typically rendered using a non-proportional ("monospace") font. Whitespace inside this element is displayed as written.

Content categories Flow content, palpable content.
Permitted content Phrasing content.
Tag omission None, both the starting and ending tag are mandatory.
Permitted parents Any element that accepts flow content.
Permitted ARIA roles Any
DOM interface HTMLPreElement

Attributes

This element only includes the global attributes.

cols
Contains the preferred count of characters that a line should have. It was a non-standard synonym of width. To achieve such an effect, use CSS width instead.
width
Contains the preferred count of characters that a line should have. Though technically still implemented, this attribute has no visual effect; to achieve such an effect, use CSS width instead.
wrap
Is a hint indicating how the overflow must happen. In modern browser this hint is ignored and no visual effect results in its present; to achieve such an effect, use CSS white-space instead.

Examples

<!-- Some example CSS code -->
<pre>
body {
  color:red;
}
</pre> 

Result

body {
  color:red;
}

Accessibility concerns

It is important to provide an alternate description for any images or diagrams created using preformatted text. The alternate description should clearly and concisely describe the image or diagram's content.

People experiencing low vision conditions and browsing with the aid of assistive technology such as a screen reader may not understand what the preformatted text characters are representing when they are read out in sequence.

A combination of the <figure> and <figcaption> elements, supplemented by a combination of an id and the ARIA role and aria-labelledby attributes allow the preformatted text to be announced as an image, with the figcaption serving as the image's alternate description.

Example

<figure role="img" aria-labelledby="cow-caption">
  <pre>
  ___________________________
< I'm an expert in my field. >
  ---------------------------
         \   ^__^ 
          \  (oo)\_______
             (__)\       )\/\
                 ||----w |
                 ||     ||
  </pre>
  <figcaption id="cow-caption">
    A cow saying, "I'm an expert in my field." The cow is illustrated using preformatted text characters. 
  </figcaption>
</figure>

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of '<pre>' in that specification.
Living Standard No significant change from HTML5
HTML5
The definition of '<pre>' in that specification.
Recommendation No significant change from HTML 4.01 Specification
HTML 4.01 Specification
The definition of '<pre>' in that specification.
Recommendation Deprecated the cols attribute

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic supportChrome Full support YesEdge Full support YesFirefox Full support 1IE Full support YesOpera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes
cols
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox No support 1 — 29IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoEdge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android No support 4 — 29Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
width
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Edge Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Firefox Full support 1
Notes
Full support 1
Notes
Notes Since Firefox 29, specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
IE Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Opera Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Safari Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
WebView Android Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Chrome Android Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Edge Mobile Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Firefox Android Full support 4
Notes
Full support 4
Notes
Notes Since Firefox 29, specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Opera Android Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Safari iOS Full support Yes
Notes
Full support Yes
Notes
Notes Specifying the width attribute has no layout effect.
Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
wrap
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome ? Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 1IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

See also

Метки документа и участники

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