Logical nullish assignment (??=)

The logical nullish assignment (x ??= y) operator only assigns if x is nullish (null or undefined).

Syntax

expr1 ??= expr2

Description

Short-circuit evaluation

The nullish coalescing operator is evaluated left to right, it is tested for possible short-circuit evaluation using the following rule:

(some expression that is neither null nor undefined) ?? expr is short-circuit evaluated to the left-hand side expression if the left-hand side proves to be neither null nor undefined.

Short circuit means that the expr part above is not evaluated, hence any side effects of doing so do not take effect (e.g., if expr is a function call, the calling never takes place).

Logical nullish assignment short-circuits as well meaning that x ??= y is equivalent to:

x ?? (x = y);

And not equivalent to the following which would always perform an assignment:

x = x ?? y;

Examples

Using logical nullish assignment

function config(options) {
  options.duration ??= 100;
  options.speed ??= 25;
  return options;
}

config({ duration: 125 }); // { duration: 125, speed: 25 }
config({}); // { duration: 100, speed: 25 }

Specifications

Specification
Logical Assignment Operators
The definition of 'Assignment operators' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobileServer
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
Logical nullish assignment (x ??= y)Chrome Full support 85Edge Full support 85Firefox Full support 79IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari Full support 14WebView Android Full support 85Chrome Android Full support 85Firefox Android Full support 79Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS Full support 14Samsung Internet Android No support Nonodejs No support No

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support

See also