# MathML documentation index

**Found 37 pages:**

# | Page | Tags and summary |
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1 | MathML | Landing, MathML, Reference, Web, XML |

Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is a dialect of XML for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. |
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2 | MathML attribute reference | MathML, MathML Reference |

This is an alphabetical list of MathML attributes. More details for each attribute are available on particular element pages. | ||

3 | Values | Guide, MathML, MathML Reference |

Several MathML presentation elements have attributes that accept length values used for size or spacing. MathML accepts different units and constants for specifying lengths. | ||

4 | Authoring MathML | Beginner, MathML, MathML Project |

This page explains how to write mathematics using the MathML language. Just like HTML, MathML is described with tags and attributes. HTML becomes verbose when your document contains advanced structures like lists or tables but fortunately there are many generators from simple notations, WYSIWYG editors and other Content Management Systems to help writing Web pages. | ||

5 | MathML element reference | MathML, MathML Reference |

This is an alphabetical list of MathML presentation elements. |
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6 | <maction> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Enlivening Expressions |

The MathML `actiontype` attribute, which accepts several values. To specify which child elements are addressed by the action, you can make use of the `selection` attribute. |
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7 | <math> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element |

The top-level element in MathML is `<math>` . Every valid MathML instance must be wrapped in `<math>` tags. In addition you must not nest a second `<math>` element in another, but you can have an arbitrary number of other child elements in it. |
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8 | <menclose> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<menclose>` element renders its content inside an enclosing notation specified by the `notation` attribute. |
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9 | <merror> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<merror>` element is used to display contents as error messages. In Firefox this error message is rendered similar to the typical XML error message. Note that this error is not thrown when your MathML markup is wrong or not well-formed XML. You will still get an XML parsing error (in case of the XHTML notation of MathML), which has nothing to do with `<merror>` . |
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10 | <mfenced> | Deprecated, MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The deprecated MathML `<mfenced>` element used to provide the possibility to add custom opening and closing parentheses (such as brackets) and separators (such as commas or semicolons) to an expression. It has been removed from the latest MathML standard and modern browsers no longer support it. |
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11 | <mfrac> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<mfrac>` element is used to display fractions. |
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12 | <mi> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Token Elements |

The MathML `<mi>` element indicates that the content should be rendered as an identifier such as function names, variables or symbolic constants. You can also have arbitrary text in it to mark up terms. |
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13 | <mmultiscripts> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Script and Limit Schemata |

The MathML `<mmultiscripts>` element allows you to create tensor-like objects. In a descriptive way tensors are multidimensional matrices (mathematical imprecise but exemplified). The degree of a tensor depends on the dimensionality of a representative array. For example, a number is a 0-dimensional array, or a 0th-order tensor. A 1-dimensional array (e.g. vectors) is a 1st-order tensor and so 2nd-order tensors are needed to represent square matrices. To learn more about the mathematical background of tensors refer to the entry on Wikipedia. |
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14 | <mn> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Token Elements |

The MathML `<mn>` element represents a numeric literal which is normally a sequence of digits with a possible separator (a dot or a comma). However, it is also allowed to have arbitrary text in it which is actually a numeric quantity, for example "eleven". |
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15 | <mo> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Token Elements |

The MathML `<mo>` element represents an operator in a broad sense. Besides operators in strict mathematical meaning, this element also includes "operators" like parentheses, separators like comma and semicolon, or "absolute value" bars. |
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16 | <mover> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Script and Limit Schemata |

The MathML `<mover>` element is used to attach an accent or a limit over an expression. Use the following syntax: `<mover> ` |
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17 | <mpadded> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<mpadded>` element is used to add extra padding and to set the general adjustment of position and size of enclosed contents. |
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18 | <mphantom> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<mphantom>` element is rendered invisibly, but dimensions (such as height, width, and baseline position) are still kept. |
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19 | <mroot> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<mroot>` element is used to display roots with an explicit index. Two arguments are accepted, which leads to the syntax: `<mroot> ` . |
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20 | <mrow> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<mrow>` element is used to group sub-expressions, which usually contain one or more operators with their respective operands (such as `mi` and `mn` ). This element renders as a horizontal row containing its arguments. |
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21 | <ms> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Token Elements |

The MathML `<ms>` element represents a string literal meant to be interpreted by programming languages and computer algebra systems. By default, string literals are displayed as enclosed by double quotes (`"` ); by using the `lquote` and `rquote` attributes, you can set custom characters to display. Note that quotation marks should not be specified unless they are part of the string literal. The content of an `<ms>` element is not an ASCII string per se, but rather a sequence of characters and `malignmark` elements. |
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22 | <mspace> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Token Elements |

The MathML `<mspace>` element is used to display a blank space, whose size is set by its attributes. |
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23 | <msqrt> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<msqrt>` element is used to display square roots (no index is displayed). The square root accepts only one argument, which leads to the following syntax: `<msqrt> ` . |
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24 | <mstyle> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:General Layout Schemata |

The MathML `<mstyle>` element is used change the style of its children. It accepts all attributes of all MathML presentation elements with some exceptions and additional attributes listed below. |
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25 | <msub> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Script and Limit Schemata |

The MathML `<msub>` element is used to attach a subscript to an expression. |
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26 | <msubsup> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Script and Limit Schemata |

The MathML `<msubsup>` element is used to attach both a subscript and a superscript, together, to an expression. |
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27 | <msup> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Script and Limit Schemata |

The MathML `<msup>` element is used to attach a superscript to an expression. |
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28 | <mtable> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Tabular Math |

The MathML `<mtable>` element allows you to create tables or matrices. Inside a `<mtable>` only `mtr` and `mtd` elements may appear. These elements are similar to `table` , `tr` and `td` elements of HTML. |
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29 | <mtd> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Tabular Math |

The MathML `<mtd>` element represents a cell in a table or a matrix. It may only appear in a `mtr` element. This element is similar to the `td` element of HTML. |
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30 | <mtext> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Token Elements |

The MathML <mtext> element is used to render arbitrary text with no notational meaning, such as comments or annotations. |
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31 | <mtr> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Tabular Math |

The MathML `<mtr>` element represents a row in a table or a matrix. It may only appear in a `mtable` element. This element is similar to the `tr` element of HTML. |
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32 | <munder> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Script and Limit Schemata |

The MathML `<munder>` element is used to attach an accent or a limit under an expression. It uses the following syntax: `<munder> ` |
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33 | <munderover> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element, MathML:Script and Limit Schemata |

The MathML `<munderover>` element is used to attach accents or limits both under and over an expression. |
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34 | <semantics> | MathML, MathML Reference, MathML:Element |

In MathML there are two ways to mark up mathematics: Presentation MathML is used to control the layout of equations, whereas Content MathML is designed to encode the semantic mathematical meaning and to make expressions understandable to computer algebra systems. The MathML elements `<semantics>` , `<annotation>` and `<annotation-xml>` are used to combine presentation and content markup and to provide both, layout information and semantic meaning of mathematical expressions. |
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35 | Examples | Beginner, Example, Guide, MathML, NeedsBeginnerUpdate |

Below you'll find some examples you can look at to help you to understand how to use MathML to display increasingly complex mathematical concepts in Web content. | ||

36 | MathML: Deriving the Quadratic Formula | Beginner, Education, Example, Guide, HTML5, MathML, NeedsBeginnerUpdate |

This page outlines the derivation of the Quadratic Formula. | ||

37 | Proving the Pythagorean theorem | Beginner, Example, Guide, HTML5 Math, Math education, MathML, NeedsBeginnerUpdate |

We will now prove the Pythagorean theorem: | ||