<math>

The top-level element in MathML is <math>. Every valid MathML instance must be wrapped in <math> tags. In addition you must not nest a second <math> element in another, but you can have an arbitrary number of other child elements in it.

Attributes

In addition to the following attributes, the <math> element accepts any attributes of the <mstyle> element.

class, id, style
Provided for use with stylesheets.
dir
 Overall directionality of formulas. Possible values are either ltr (left to right) or rtl (right to left).
href
Used to set a hyperlink to a specified URI.
mathbackground
The background color. You can use #rgb, #rrggbb and HTML color names.
mathcolor
The text color. You can use #rgb, #rrggbb and HTML color names.
display
This enumerated attribute specifies how the enclosed MathML markup should be rendered. It can have one of the following values:
  • block, which means that this element will be displayed outside the current span of text, as a block that can be positioned anywhere without changing the meaning of the text;
  • inline, which means that this element will be displayed inside the current span of text, and cannot be moved out of it without changing the meaning of that text.

If not present, its default value is inline.

mode
Deprecated in favor of the display attribute.
Possible values are: display (which has the same effect as display="block") and inline.
overflow
Specifies how an expression behaves if it is too long to fit in the allowed width.
Possible values are: linebreak (default), scroll, elide, truncate, scale.

Examples

Theorem of Pythagoras

HTML5 notation

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>MathML in HTML5</title>
  </head>
  <body>

  <math>
    <mrow>
      <mrow>
        <msup>
          <mi>a</mi>
          <mn>2</mn>
        </msup>
        <mo>+</mo>
        <msup>
          <mi>b</mi>
          <mn>2</mn>
        </msup>
      </mrow>
      <mo>=</mo>
      <msup>
        <mi>c</mi>
        <mn>2</mn>
      </msup>
    </mrow>
  </math>

  </body>
</html> 

XHTML notation

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1 plus MathML 2.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/Math/DTD/mathml2/xhtml-math11-f.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
 <title>MathML in XHTML</title>
</head>
<body>

  <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
    <mrow>
      <mrow>
        <msup>
          <mi>a</mi>
          <mn>2</mn>
        </msup>
        <mo>+</mo>
        <msup>
          <mi>b</mi>
          <mn>2</mn>
        </msup>
      </mrow>
      <mo>=</mo>
      <msup>
        <mi>c</mi>
        <mn>2</mn>
      </msup>
    </mrow>
  </math>

</body>
</html>

Notes: XHTML documents with MathML must be served as application/xhtml+xml. You can achieve that easily by adding the .xhtml extension to your local files. For Apache servers you can configure your .htaccess file to map extensions to the correct Mime type. Since you notate your MathML in an XML document, also be sure you write a well-formed XML document.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
XHTML notation Not supported (24 only) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) Not supported 9.5 5.1
HTML5 notation Not supported (24 only) 4.0 (2.0) Not supported Not supported 5.1
dir Not supported 12.0 (12.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
href Not supported WebKit bug 85733 7.0 (7.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported WebKit bug 85733
mathbackground Not supported (24 only) 4.0 (2.0) Not supported Not supported 5.1
mathcolor Not supported (24 only) 4.0 (2.0) Not supported Not supported 5.1
overflow Not supported Not supported Not supported Not supported Not supported
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
XHTML notation Not supported Not supported 1.0 (1.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
HTML5 notation Not supported Not supported 4.0 (2.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
dir Not supported Not supported 12.0 (12.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
href Not supported Not supported 7.0 (7.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
mathbackground Not supported Not supported 4.0 (2.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
mathcolor Not supported Not supported 4.0 (2.0) Not supported Not supported Not supported
overflow Not supported Not supported Not supported Not supported Not supported Not supported

Gecko-specific notes

Gecko 7.0 (Firefox 7.0 / Thunderbird 7.0 / SeaMonkey 2.4) introduced support for accepting all MathML attributes on the top-level math element (i.e. the same behavior as a <mstyle> element). However, the displaystyle attribute was not taken into account and has been added in Gecko 8.0 (Firefox 8.0 / Thunderbird 8.0 / SeaMonkey 2.5).

A textual fall-back (alttext) or referring to an alternative image using the attributes altimg, altimg-width, altimg-height or altimg-valign is currently not implemented in Gecko.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
MathML 3.0 Recommendation Current specification
MathML 2.0 Recommendation Initial specification

See also

Attachments

File Size Date Attached by
math.jpg
1882 bytes 2010-11-06 15:49:03 fscholz

Document Tags and Contributors

Contributors to this page: fred.wang, jswisher, Sheppy, fscholz, teoli
Last updated by: fscholz,