The MathML <ms> element represents a string literal meant to be interpreted by programming languages and computer algebra systems. By default, string literals are displayed as enclosed by double quotes (&quot;); by using the lquote and rquote attributes, you can set custom characters to display. Note that quotation marks should not be specified unless they are part of the string literal. The content of an <ms> element is not an ASCII string per se, but rather a sequence of characters and <mglyph> and <malignmark> elements.


class, id, style
Provided for use with stylesheets.
The text direction. Possible values are either ltr (left to right) or rtl (right to left).
A Boolean value specifying whether more vertical space is used for displayed equations or, if set to false, a more compact layout is used to display formulas. The main effect is that larger versions of operators are displayed, when displaystyle is set to true. See also largeop and movablelimits on <mo>.
The opening quote character (depends on dir) to enclose the content. The default value is "&quot;".
Used to set a hyperlink to a specified URI.
The background color. You can use #rgb, #rrggbb and HTML color names.
The text color. You can use #rgb, #rrggbb and HTML color names.
The size of the content. See length for possible values.
Deprecated values are: small, normal and big. These will be removed in the future.
This attribute specifies the logical class of the identifier, which varies in typography. That is, although the names suggest the typographic style for the class, semantically, items with the same class are treated "the same" within an expression, which might or might not involve displaying them with the named typography. The following values are allowed:
  • normal (Default value) ; Example
  • bold ; Example
  • italic ; Example
  • bold-italic ; Example
  • double-struck ; Example
  • bold-fraktur ; Example
  • script ; Example
  • bold-script ; Example
  • fraktur ; Example
  • sans-serif ; Example
  • bold-sans-serif ; Example
  • sans-serif-italic ; Example
  • sans-serif-bold-italic ; Example
  • monospace ; Example
  • initial ; مثال
  • tailed ; مثال
  • looped ; مثال
  • stretched ; مثال
The closing quote mark (depends on dir) to enclose the content. The default value is "&quot;".



  <ms lquote="" rquote=""> abc </ms>



Specification Status Comment
MathML Core
The definition of 'ms' in that specification.
Draft Draft specification
MathML 3.0
The definition of 'ms' in that specification.
Recommendation Current specification
MathML 2.0
The definition of 'ms' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial specification

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

Gecko-specific notes

  • Some mathvariant values are only implemented starting with Gecko 28.0 (Firefox 28.0 / Thunderbird 28.0 / SeaMonkey 2.25) and require appropriate math fonts.