Intl.DateTimeFormat() constructor

The Intl.DateTimeFormat() constructor creates Intl.DateTimeFormat objects that enable language-sensitive date and time formatting.

Try it

Syntax

new Intl.DateTimeFormat()
new Intl.DateTimeFormat(locales)
new Intl.DateTimeFormat(locales, options)

Intl.DateTimeFormat()
Intl.DateTimeFormat(locales)
Intl.DateTimeFormat(locales, options)

Note: Intl.DateTimeFormat() can be called with or without new. Both create a new Intl.DateTimeFormat instance. However, there's a special behavior when it's called without new and the this value is another Intl.DateTimeFormat instance; see Return value.

Parameters

locales Optional

A string with a BCP 47 language tag, or an array of such strings. For the general form and interpretation of the locales argument, see Locale identification and negotiation. The following Unicode extension keys are allowed:

nu

Numbering system. Possible values include: "arab", "arabext", "bali", "beng", "deva", "fullwide", "gujr", "guru", "hanidec", "khmr", "knda", "laoo", "latn", "limb", "mlym", "mong", "mymr", "orya", "tamldec", "telu", "thai", "tibt".

ca

Calendar. Possible values include: "buddhist", "chinese", "coptic", "dangi", "ethioaa", "ethiopic", "gregory", "hebrew", "indian", "islamic", "islamic-umalqura", "islamic-tbla", "islamic-civil", "islamic-rgsa", "iso8601", "japanese", "persian", "roc", "islamicc".

Warning: The islamicc calendar key has been deprecated. Please use islamic-civil.

hc

Hour cycle. Possible values include: "h11", "h12", "h23", "h24".

options Optional

An object with some or all of the following properties:

dateStyle

The date formatting style to use when calling format(). Possible values include:

  • "full"
  • "long"
  • "medium"
  • "short"

Note: dateStyle can be used with timeStyle, but not with other options (e.g. weekday, hour, month, etc.).

timeStyle

The time formatting style to use when calling format(). Possible values include:

  • "full"
  • "long"
  • "medium"
  • "short"

Note: timeStyle can be used with dateStyle, but not with other options (e.g. weekday, hour, month, etc.).

calendar

Calendar. Possible values include: "buddhist", "chinese", "coptic", "dangi", "ethioaa", "ethiopic", "gregory", "hebrew", "indian", "islamic", "islamic-umalqura", "islamic-tbla", "islamic-civil", "islamic-rgsa", "iso8601", "japanese", "persian", "roc", "islamicc".

Warning: The islamicc calendar key has been deprecated. Please use islamic-civil.

dayPeriod

The formatting style used for day periods like "in the morning", "am", "noon", "n" etc. Possible values include: "narrow", "short", "long".

Note:

  • This option only has an effect if a 12-hour clock is used.
  • Many locales use the same string irrespective of the width specified.
numberingSystem

Numbering System. Possible values include: "arab", "arabext", "bali", "beng", "deva", "fullwide", " gujr", "guru", "hanidec", "khmr", " knda", "laoo", "latn", "limb", "mlym", "mong", "mymr", "orya", "tamldec", "telu", "thai", "tibt".

localeMatcher

The locale matching algorithm to use. Possible values are "lookup" and "best fit"; the default is "best fit". For information about this option, see the Intl page.

timeZone

The time zone to use. The only value implementations must recognize is "UTC"; the default is the runtime's default time zone. Implementations may also recognize the time zone names of the IANA time zone database, such as "Asia/Shanghai", "Asia/Kolkata", "America/New_York".

hour12

Whether to use 12-hour time (as opposed to 24-hour time). Possible values are true and false; the default is locale dependent. This option overrides the hc language tag and/or the hourCycle option in case both are present.

hourCycle

The hour cycle to use. Possible values are "h11", "h12", "h23", or "h24". This option overrides the hc language tag, if both are present, and the hour12 option takes precedence in case both options have been specified.

formatMatcher

The format matching algorithm to use. Possible values are "basic" and "best fit"; the default is "best fit". See the following paragraphs for information about the use of this property.

The following properties describe the date-time components to use in formatted output, and their desired representations. Implementations are required to support at least the following subsets:

  • weekday, year, month, day, hour, minute, second
  • weekday, year, month, day
  • year, month, day
  • year, month
  • month, day
  • hour, minute, second
  • hour, minute

Implementations may support other subsets, and requests will be negotiated against all available subset-representation combinations to find the best match. Two algorithms are available for this negotiation and selected by the formatMatcher property: A fully specified "basic" algorithm and an implementation-dependent "best fit" algorithm.

weekday

The representation of the weekday. Possible values are:

  • "long" (e.g., Thursday)
  • "short" (e.g., Thu)
  • "narrow" (e.g., T). Two weekdays may have the same narrow style for some locales (e.g. Tuesday's narrow style is also T).
era

The representation of the era. Possible values are:

  • "long" (e.g., Anno Domini)
  • "short" (e.g., AD)
  • "narrow" (e.g., A)
year

The representation of the year. Possible values are:

  • "numeric" (e.g., 2012)
  • "2-digit" (e.g., 12)
month

The representation of the month. Possible values are:

  • "numeric" (e.g., 3)
  • "2-digit" (e.g., 03)
  • "long" (e.g., March)
  • "short" (e.g., Mar)
  • "narrow" (e.g., M). Two months may have the same narrow style for some locales (e.g. May's narrow style is also M).
day

The representation of the day. Possible values are:

  • "numeric" (e.g., 1)
  • "2-digit" (e.g., 01)
hour

The representation of the hour. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit".

minute

The representation of the minute. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit".

second

The representation of the second. Possible values are "numeric","2-digit".

fractionalSecondDigits

The number of digits used to represent fractions of a second (any additional digits are truncated). Possible values are:

  • 0 (Fractional part dropped.)
  • 1 (Fractional part represented as 1 digit. For example, 736 is formatted as 7.)
  • 2 (Fractional part represented as 2 digits. For example, 736 is formatted as 73.)
  • 3 (Fractional part represented as 3 digits. For example, 736 is formatted as 736.)
timeZoneName

The localized representation of the time zone name. Possible values are:

  • "long" Long localized form (e.g., Pacific Standard Time, Nordamerikanische Westküsten-Normalzeit)
  • "short" Short localized form (e.g.: PST, GMT-8)
  • "shortOffset" Short localized GMT format (e.g., GMT-8)
  • "longOffset" Long localized GMT format (e.g., GMT-0800)
  • "shortGeneric" Short generic non-location format (e.g.: PT, Los Angeles Zeit).
  • "longGeneric" Long generic non-location format (e.g.: Pacific Time, Nordamerikanische Westküstenzeit)

Note: Timezone display may fall back to another format if a required string is unavailable. For example, the non-location formats should display the timezone without a specific country/city location like "Pacific Time", but may fall back to a timezone like "Los Angeles Time".

The default value for each date-time component property is undefined, but if all component properties are undefined, then year, month, and day are assumed to be "numeric".

Return value

A new Intl.DateTimeFormat object.

Note: The text below describes behavior that is marked by the specification as "optional". It may not work in all environments. Check the browser compatibility table.

Normally, Intl.DateTimeFormat() can be called with or without new, and a new Intl.DateTimeFormat instance is returned in both cases. However, if the this value is an object that is instanceof Intl.DateTimeFormat (doesn't necessarily mean it's created via new Intl.DateTimeFormat; just that it has Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype in its prototype chain), then the value of this is returned instead, with the newly created Intl.DateTimeFormat object hidden in a [Symbol(IntlLegacyConstructedSymbol)] property (a unique symbol that's reused between instances).

const formatter = Intl.DateTimeFormat.call(
  { __proto__: Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype },
  "en-US",
  { dateStyle: "full" },
);
console.log(Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptors(formatter));
// {
//   [Symbol(IntlLegacyConstructedSymbol)]: {
//     value: DateTimeFormat [Intl.DateTimeFormat] {},
//     writable: false,
//     enumerable: false,
//     configurable: false
//   }
// }

Note that there's only one actual Intl.DateTimeFormat instance here: the one hidden in [Symbol(IntlLegacyConstructedSymbol)]. Calling the format() and resolvedOptions() methods on formatter would correctly use the options stored in that instance, but calling all other methods (e.g. formatRange()) would fail: "TypeError: formatRange method called on incompatible Object", because those methods don't consult the hidden instance's options.

This behavior, called ChainDateTimeFormat, does not happen when Intl.DateTimeFormat() is called without new but with this set to anything else that's not an instanceof Intl.DateTimeFormat. If you call it directly as Intl.DateTimeFormat(), the this value is Intl, and a new Intl.DateTimeFormat instance is created normally.

Examples

Using DateTimeFormat

In basic use without specifying a locale, DateTimeFormat uses the default locale and default options.

const date = new Date(Date.UTC(2012, 11, 20, 3, 0, 0));

// toLocaleString without arguments depends on the implementation,
// the default locale, and the default time zone
console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat().format(date));
// → "12/19/2012" if run with en-US locale (language) and time zone America/Los_Angeles (UTC-0800)

Using timeStyle and dateStyle

const shortTime = new Intl.DateTimeFormat("en", {
  timeStyle: "short"
});
console.log(shortTime.format(Date.now())); // "13:31 AM"

const shortDate = new Intl.DateTimeFormat("en", {
  dateStyle: "short"
});
console.log(shortDate.format(Date.now())); // "07/07/20"

const mediumTime = new Intl.DateTimeFormat("en", {
  timeStyle: "medium",
  dateStyle: "short"
});
console.log(mediumTime.format(Date.now())); // "07/07/20, 13:31:55 AM"

Using dayPeriod

Use the dayPeriod option to output a string for the times of day ("in the morning", "at night", "noon", etc.). Note, that this only works when formatting for a 12 hour clock (hourCycle: 'h12') and that for many locales the strings are the same irrespective of the value passed for the dayPeriod.

const date = Date.UTC(2012, 11, 17, 4, 0, 42);

console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat('en-GB', {
  hour: 'numeric',
  hourCycle: 'h12',
  dayPeriod: 'short',
  timeZone: 'UTC',
}).format(date));
// > 4 at night"  (same formatting in en-GB for all dayPeriod values)

console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat('fr', {
  hour: 'numeric',
  hourCycle: 'h12',
  dayPeriod: 'narrow',
  timeZone: 'UTC',
}).format(date));
// > "4 mat."  (same output in French for both narrow/short dayPeriod)

console.log(new Intl.DateTimeFormat('fr', {
  hour: 'numeric',
  hourCycle: 'h12',
  dayPeriod: 'long',
  timeZone: 'UTC',
}).format(date));
// > "4 du matin"

Using timeZoneName

Use the timeZoneName option to output a string for the timezone ("GMT", "Pacific Time", etc.).

const date = Date.UTC(2021, 11, 17, 3, 0, 42);
const timezoneNames = ['short', 'long', 'shortOffset', 'longOffset', 'shortGeneric', 'longGeneric']

for (const zoneName of timezoneNames) {
  // Do something with currentValue
  const formatter = new Intl.DateTimeFormat('en-US', {
    timeZone: 'America/Los_Angeles',
    timeZoneName: zoneName,
  });
  console.log(`${zoneName}: ${formatter.format(date)}`);
}

// expected output:
// > "short: 12/16/2021, PST"
// > "long: 12/16/2021, Pacific Standard Time"
// > "shortOffset: 12/16/2021, GMT-8"
// > "longOffset: 12/16/2021, GMT-08:00"
// > "shortGeneric: 12/16/2021, PT"
// > "longGeneric: 12/16/2021, Pacific Time"

Specifications

Specification
ECMAScript Internationalization API Specification
# sec-intl-datetimeformat-constructor

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also