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HTTP 消息头允许客户端和服务器通过 request response传递附加信息。一个请求头由不区分大小写的名称后跟一个冒号“:”,然后跟然后值(不带换行符)组成。该值前面的引导空白会被忽略。

 

HTTP 消息头用来准确描述正在获取的资源、服务器或者客户端的行为。 自定义专用消息头可通过'X-' 前缀来添加; 其他的消息头在 IANA 注册表 中列出, 其原始内容在 RFC 4229中定义. IANA 同时还维护了被提议的新HTTP 消息头注册表.

以下列清单概括了消息头及其用途:

消息头 描述 更多信息 标准
Accept 用户代理期望的MIME 类型列表 HTTP Content Negotiation HTTP/1.1
Accept-CH 

列出配置数据,服务器可据此来选择适当的响应。 HTTP Client Hints  
Accept-Charset 列出用户代理支持的字符集。 HTTP Content Negotiation HTTP/1.1
Accept-Features   HTTP Content Negotiation RFC 2295, §8.2
Accept-Encoding 列出用户代支持的压缩方法。 HTTP Content Negotiation HTTP/1.1
Accept-Language 列出用户代理期望的页面语言。 HTTP Content Negotiation HTTP/1.1
Accept-Ranges      
Access-Control-Allow-Credentials   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Access-Control-Allow-Origin   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Access-Control-Allow-Methods   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Access-Control-Allow-Headers   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Access-Control-Max-Age   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Access-Control-Expose-Headers   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Access-Control-Request-Method   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Access-Control-Request-Headers   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Age      
Allow      
Alternates   HTTP Content Negotiation RFC 2295, §8.3
Authorization      
Cache-Control   HTTP Caching FAQ  
Connection      
Content-Encoding      
Content-Language      
Content-Length      
Content-Location      
Content-MD5   未实现 (查看 bug 232030)  
Content-Range      
Content-Security-Policy 控制用户代理在一个页面上可以加载使用的资源。 CSP (Content Security Policy) W3C Content Security Policy
Content-Type 指示服务器文档的MIME 类型。帮助用户代理(浏览器)去处理接收到的数据。    
Cookie     RFC 2109
DNT 设置该值为1, 表明用户明确退出任何形式的网上跟踪。 Supported by Firefox 4, Firefox 5 for mobile, IE9, and a few major companies. Tracking Preference Expression (DNT)
Date      
ETag   HTTP Caching FAQ  
Expect      
Expires   HTTP Caching FAQ  
From      
Host      
If-Match      
If-Modified-Since   HTTP Caching FAQ  
If-None-Match   HTTP Caching FAQ  
If-Range      
If-Unmodified-Since      
Last-Event-ID 给出服务器在先前HTTP连接上接收的最后事件的ID。用于同步文本/事件流。 Server-Sent Events Server-Sent Events spec
Last-Modified   HTTP Caching FAQ  
Link

等同于HTML标签中的"link",但它是在HTTP层上,给出一个与获取的资源相关的URL以及关系的种类。

For the rel=prefetch case, see Link Prefetching FAQ

Introduced in HTTP 1.1's RFC 2068, section 19.6.2.4, it was removed in the final HTTP 1.1 spec, then reintroduced, with some extensions, in RFC 5988

Location      
Max-Forwards      
Negotiate   HTTP Content Negotiation RFC 2295, §8.4
Origin   HTTP Access Control and Server Side Access Control More recently defined in the Fetch spec (see Fetch API.) Originally defined in W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing
Pragma   for the pragma: nocache value see HTTP Caching FAQ  
Proxy-Authenticate      
Proxy-Authorization      
Range      
Referer

(请注意,在HTTP / 0.9规范中引入的正交错误必须在协议的后续版本中保留)

   
Retry-After      
Sec-Websocket-Extensions      Websockets
Sec-Websocket-Key      Websockets
Sec-Websocket-Origin      Websockets
Sec-Websocket-Protocol      Websockets
Sec-Websocket-Version      Websockets
Server      
Set-Cookie     RFC 2109
Set-Cookie2     RFC 2965
Strict-Transport-Security   HTTP Strict Transport Security IETF reference
TCN   HTTP Content Negotiation RFC 2295, §8.5
TE      
Trailer

列出将在消息正文之后在尾部块中传输的头。这允许服务器计算一些值,如Content-MD5:在传输数据时。请注意,Trailer:标头不得列出Content-Length :, Trailer:或Transfer-Encoding:headers。

  RFC 2616, §14.40
Transfer-Encoding      
Upgrade      
User-Agent   for Gecko's user agents see the User Agents Reference  
Variant-Vary   HTTP Content Negotiation RFC 2295, §8.6
Vary

列出了用作Web服务器选择特定内容的条件的标头。此服务器对于高效和正确缓存发送的资源很重要。

HTTP Content Negotiation & HTTP Caching FAQ  
Via      
Warning      
WWW-Authenticate      
X-Content-Duration   Configuring servers for Ogg media  
X-Content-Security-Policy   Using Content Security Policy  
X-DNSPrefetch-Control   Controlling DNS prefetching  
X-Frame-Options   The XFrame-Option Response Header  
X-Requested-With

通常在值为“XMLHttpRequest”时使用

  Not standard

Notes

Note: The Keep-Alive request header is not sent by Gecko 5.0; previous versions did send it but it was not formatted correctly, so the decision was made to remove it for the time being. The Connection or Proxy-Connection header is still sent, however, with the value "keep-alive".

See also

Wikipedia page on List of HTTP headers

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