Set

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Das Set object lässt Sie eindeutige Werte jedes beliebigen Typs speichern, egal ob es sich dabei um primitive Werte oder Objektreferenzen handelt.

Syntax

new Set([iterable]);

Parameter

iterable
Wird ein  iterierbares Objekt übergeben, werden all seine Elemente zum Set hinzugefügt. null wird als undefined behandelt.

Beschreibung

Set Objekte sind Sammlungen von Werten, Sie können über die Elemente in der Reihenfolge des Einfügens iterieren. Ein Wert kann in einem Set nur einmal erscheinen; er ist im Set eindeutig.

Value equality

Because each value in the Set has to be unique, the value equality will be checked and is not based on the same algorithm as the one used in the === operator. Specifically, for Sets, +0 (which is strictly equal to -0) and -0 are different values. However, this has been changed in the latest ECMAScript 6 specification. Starting with Gecko 29.0 (Firefox 29 / Thunderbird 29 / SeaMonkey 2.26) (Bug 952870) and a recent nightly Chrome, +0 and -0 are treated as the same value in Set objects. Also, NaN and undefined can also be stored in a Set. NaN is considered the same as NaN (even though NaN !== NaN).

Properties

Set.length
The value of the length property is 0.
get Set[@@species]
The constructor function that is used to create derived objects.
Set.prototype
Represents the prototype for the Set constructor. Allows the addition of properties to all Set objects.

Set instances

All Set instances inherit from Set.prototype.

Properties

Set.prototype.constructor
Returns the function that created an instance's prototype. This is the Set function by default.
Set.prototype.size
Returns the number of values in the Set object.

Methods

Set.prototype.add(value)
Appends a new element with the given value to the Set object. Returns the Set object.
Set.prototype.clear()
Removes all elements from the Set object.
Set.prototype.delete(value)
Removes the element associated to the value and returns the value that Set.prototype.has(value) would have previously returned. Set.prototype.has(value) will return false afterwards.
Set.prototype.entries()
Returns a new Iterator object that contains an array of [value, value] for each element in the Set object, in insertion order. This is kept similar to the Map object, so that each entry has the same value for its key and value here.
Set.prototype.forEach(callbackFn[, thisArg])
Calls callbackFn once for each value present in the Set object, in insertion order. If a thisArg parameter is provided to forEach, it will be used as the this value for each callback.
Set.prototype.has(value)
Returns a boolean asserting whether an element is present with the given value in the Set object or not.
Set.prototype.keys()
Is the same function as the values() function and returns a new Iterator object that contains the values for each element in the Set object in insertion order.
Set.prototype.values()
Returns a new Iterator object that contains the values for each element in the Set object in insertion order.
Set.prototype[@@iterator]()
Returns a new Iterator object that contains the values for each element in the Set object in insertion order.

Examples

Using the Set object

var mySet = new Set();

mySet.add(1);
mySet.add(5);
mySet.add("some text");
var o = {a: 1, b: 2};
mySet.add(o);

mySet.has(1); // true
mySet.has(3); // false, 3 has not been added to the set
mySet.has(5);              // true
mySet.has(Math.sqrt(25));  // true
mySet.has("Some Text".toLowerCase()); // true
mySet.has(o); // true

mySet.size; // 4

mySet.delete(5); // removes 5 from the set
mySet.has(5);    // false, 5 has been removed

mySet.size; // 3, we just removed one value

Iterating Sets

// iterate over items in set
// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text" 
for (let item of mySet) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text" 
for (let item of mySet.keys()) console.log(item);
 
// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text" 
for (let item of mySet.values()) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text" 
//(key and value are the same here)
for (let [key, value] of mySet.entries()) console.log(key);

// convert set to plain Array (with Array comprehensions)
var myArr = [v for (v of mySet)]; // [1, "some text"]
// Alternative (with Array.from)
var myArr = Array.from(mySet); // [1, "some text"]

// the following will also work if run in an HTML document
mySet.add(document.body);
mySet.has(document.querySelector("body")); // true

// converting between Set and Array
mySet2 = new Set([1,2,3,4]);
mySet2.size; // 4
[...mySet2]; // [1,2,3,4]

// intersect can be simulated via 
var intersection = new Set([...set1].filter(x => set2.has(x)));

// difference can be simulated via
var difference = new Set([...set1].filter(x => !set2.has(x)));

// Iterate set entries with forEach
mySet.forEach(function(value) {
  console.log(value);
});

// 1
// 2
// 3
// 4

Relation with Array objects

var myArray = ["value1", "value2", "value3"];

// Use the regular Set constructor to transform an Array into a Set
var mySet = new Set(myArray);

mySet.has("value1"); // returns true

// Use the spread operator to transform a set into an Array.
console.log([...mySet]); // Will show you exactly the same Array as myArray

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
Die Definition von 'Set' in dieser Spezifikation.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript 2017 Draft (ECMA-262)
Die Definition von 'Set' in dieser Spezifikation.
Entwurf  

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support

38 [1]

13 (13) 11 25 7.1
Constructor argument: new Set(iterable) 38 13 (13) Nicht unterstützt 25 9.0
iterable 38 17 (17) Nicht unterstützt 25 7.1
Set.clear() 38 19 (19) 11 25 7.1
Set.keys(), Set.values(), Set.entries() 38 24 (24) Nicht unterstützt 25 7.1
Set.forEach() 38 25 (25) 11 25 7.1
Value equality for -0 and 0 38 29 (29) Nicht unterstützt 25 Nicht unterstützt
Constructor argument: new Set(null) (Ja) 37 (37) ? ? ?
Monkey-patched add() in Constructor (Ja) 37 (37) ? ? ?
Set[@@species] ? 41 (41) ? ? ?
Set() without new throws ? 42 (42) ? ? ?
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support Nicht unterstützt 38 [1] 13.0 (13) Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt 8
Constructor argument: new Set(iterable) Nicht unterstützt 38 13.0 (13) Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt
iterable Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt 17.0 (17) Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt 8
Set.clear() Nicht unterstützt 38 19.0 (19) Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt 8
Set.keys(), Set.values(), Set.entries() Nicht unterstützt 38 24.0 (24) Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt 8
Set.forEach() Nicht unterstützt 38 25.0 (25) Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt 8
Value equality for -0 and 0 Nicht unterstützt 38 29.0 (29) Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt Nicht unterstützt
Constructor argument: new Set(null) ? (Ja) 37.0 (37) ? ? ?
Monkey-patched add() in Constructor ? (Ja) 37.0 (37) ? ? ?
Set[@@species] ? ? 41.0 (41) ? ? ?
Set() without new throws ? ? 42.0 (42) ? ? ?

[1] The feature was available behind a preference from Chrome 31. In chrome://flags, activate the entry “Enable Experimental JavaScript”.

See also

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