Set

Set 物件可讓你儲存任何類型的唯一值(unique),不論是基本型別(primitive)值 (en-US)或物件參考(references)。

語法

new Set([iterable]);

參數

iterable
若一個可迭代物件 (en-US)被傳入,其所有的元素將會被加入至新的 Set。若你沒有指定此參數,或參數值為 null,則新的 Set 會是空的。

回傳值

一個新的 Set 物件。

描述

Set 對象是數值的收集器。您可以按插入順序迭代收集器中的元素。在 Set 裡的元素只會出現一次 意即在Set裡的元素都是獨一無二

值的相等性

因為在 Set 裡每個值都是獨立的,所以都會檢查值的相等性。在早期的ECMAScript規範版本中,此處算法跟基於===操作符中使用的算法並不相同。具體來說,在 Set裡+0(在嚴格模式是和-0相等)和-0是不同的值。然而在 ECMAScript 2015規範中這點已被更改。請參閱 瀏覽器兼容性 中的"Value equality for -0 and 0"。

另外,NaN和undefined都可以被放置在Set 中, NaN之間被視為相同的值(儘管 NaN !== NaN)。

Set.length
The value of the length property is 0.
get Set[@@species] (en-US)
The constructor function that is used to create derived objects.
Set.prototype (en-US)
Represents the prototype for the Set constructor. Allows the addition of properties to all Set objects.

Set 物件實體

All Set instances inherit from Set.prototype (en-US).

屬性

{{page('en-US/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Set/prototype','Properties')}}

方法

{{page('en-US/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Set/prototype','Methods')}}

範例

使用 Set 物件

var mySet = new Set();

mySet.add(1); // Set [ 1 ]
mySet.add(5); // Set [ 1, 5 ]
mySet.add(5); // Set [ 1, 5 ]
mySet.add('some text'); // Set [ 1, 5, 'some text' ]
var o = {a: 1, b: 2};
mySet.add(o);

mySet.add({a: 1, b: 2}); // o is referencing a different object so this is okay

mySet.has(1); // true
mySet.has(3); // false, 3 has not been added to the set
mySet.has(5);              // true
mySet.has(Math.sqrt(25));  // true
mySet.has('Some Text'.toLowerCase()); // true
mySet.has(o); // true

mySet.size; // 5

mySet.delete(5); // removes 5 from the set
mySet.has(5);    // false, 5 has been removed

mySet.size; // 4, we just removed one value
console.log(mySet);// Set [ 1, "some text", Object {a: 1, b: 2}, Object {a: 1, b: 2} ]

迭代 Sets

// iterate over items in set
// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
for (let item of mySet) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
for (let item of mySet.keys()) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
for (let item of mySet.values()) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
//(key and value are the same here)
for (let [key, value] of mySet.entries()) console.log(key);

// convert Set object to an Array object, with Array.from
var myArr = Array.from(mySet); // [1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}]

// the following will also work if run in an HTML document
mySet.add(document.body);
mySet.has(document.querySelector('body')); // true

// converting between Set and Array
mySet2 = new Set([1, 2, 3, 4]);
mySet2.size; // 4
[...mySet2]; // [1, 2, 3, 4]

// intersect can be simulated via
var intersection = new Set([...set1].filter(x => set2.has(x)));

// difference can be simulated via
var difference = new Set([...set1].filter(x => !set2.has(x)));

// Iterate set entries with forEach
mySet.forEach(function(value) {
  console.log(value);
});

// 1
// 2
// 3
// 4

實作基本的 set 操作

Set.prototype.isSuperset = function(subset) {
    for (var elem of subset) {
        if (!this.has(elem)) {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}

Set.prototype.union = function(setB) {
    var union = new Set(this);
    for (var elem of setB) {
        union.add(elem);
    }
    return union;
}

Set.prototype.intersection = function(setB) {
    var intersection = new Set();
    for (var elem of setB) {
        if (this.has(elem)) {
            intersection.add(elem);
        }
    }
    return intersection;
}

Set.prototype.difference = function(setB) {
    var difference = new Set(this);
    for (var elem of setB) {
        difference.delete(elem);
    }
    return difference;
}

//Examples
var setA = new Set([1, 2, 3, 4]),
    setB = new Set([2, 3]),
    setC = new Set([3, 4, 5, 6]);

setA.isSuperset(setB); // => true
setA.union(setC); // => Set [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
setA.intersection(setC); // => Set [3, 4]
setA.difference(setC); // => Set [1, 2]

與 Array 物件關聯

var myArray = ['value1', 'value2', 'value3'];

// Use the regular Set constructor to transform an Array into a Set
var mySet = new Set(myArray);

mySet.has('value1'); // returns true

// Use the spread operator to transform a set into an Array.
console.log([...mySet]); // Will show you exactly the same Array as myArray

與 Strings 關聯

var text = 'India';

var mySet = new Set(text);  // Set ['I', 'n', 'd', 'i', 'a']
mySet.size;  // 5

規範

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Set' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Set' in that specification.
Living Standard

瀏覽器相容性

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參見