Set

Set 物件可讓你儲存任何類型的唯一值(unique),不論是基本型別(primitive)值 (en-US)或物件參考(references)。

嘗試一下

語法

js

new Set([iterable]);

參數

iterable

若一個可迭代物件 (en-US)被傳入,其所有的元素將會被加入至新的 Set。若你沒有指定此參數,或參數值為 null,則新的 Set 會是空的。

回傳值

一個新的 Set 物件。

描述

Set 對象是數值的收集器。你可以按插入順序迭代收集器中的元素。在 Set 裡的元素只會出現一次**;** 意即在Set裡的元素都是獨一無二

值的相等性

因為在 Set 裡每個值都是獨立的,所以都會檢查值的相等性。在早期的 ECMAScript 規範版本中,此處算法跟基於===操作符中使用的算法並不相同。具體來說,在 Set裡+0(在嚴格模式是和-0 相等)和-0 是不同的值。然而在 ECMAScript 2015 規範中這點已被更改。請參閱 瀏覽器兼容性 中的"Value equality for -0 and 0"。

另外,NaN 和 undefined 都可以被放置在 Set 中, NaN 之間被視為相同的值(儘管 NaN !== NaN)。

Set.length

The value of the length property is 0.

get Set[@@species] (en-US)

The constructor function that is used to create derived objects.

Set.prototype (en-US)

Represents the prototype for the Set constructor. Allows the addition of properties to all Set objects.

Set 物件實體

All Set instances inherit from Set.prototype (en-US).

屬性

Set.prototype[@@toStringTag]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag (en-US) property is the string "Set". This property is used in Object.prototype.toString() (en-US).

Set.prototype.size (en-US)

Returns the number of values in the Set object.

方法

Set.prototype.add()

Inserts a new element with a specified value in to a Set object, if there isn't an element with the same value already in the Set.

Set.prototype.clear()

Removes all elements from the Set object.

Set.prototype.delete()

Removes the element associated to the value and returns a boolean asserting whether an element was successfully removed or not. Set.prototype.has(value) will return false afterwards.

Set.prototype.has()

Returns a boolean asserting whether an element is present with the given value in the Set object or not.

Set.prototype[@@iterator]() (en-US)

Returns a new iterator object that yields the values for each element in the Set object in insertion order.

Set.prototype.values()

Returns a new iterator object that yields the values for each element in the Set object in insertion order.

Set.prototype.keys() (en-US)

An alias for Set.prototype.values().

Set.prototype.entries()

Returns a new iterator object that contains an array of [value, value] for each element in the Set object, in insertion order.

This is similar to the Map object, so that each entry's key is the same as its value for a Set.

Set.prototype.forEach() (en-US)

Calls callbackFn once for each value present in the Set object, in insertion order. If a thisArg parameter is provided, it will be used as the this value for each invocation of callbackFn.

範例

使用 Set 物件

js

var mySet = new Set();

mySet.add(1); // Set [ 1 ]
mySet.add(5); // Set [ 1, 5 ]
mySet.add(5); // Set [ 1, 5 ]
mySet.add("some text"); // Set [ 1, 5, 'some text' ]
var o = { a: 1, b: 2 };
mySet.add(o);

mySet.add({ a: 1, b: 2 }); // o is referencing a different object so this is okay

mySet.has(1); // true
mySet.has(3); // false, 3 has not been added to the set
mySet.has(5); // true
mySet.has(Math.sqrt(25)); // true
mySet.has("Some Text".toLowerCase()); // true
mySet.has(o); // true

mySet.size; // 5

mySet.delete(5); // removes 5 from the set
mySet.has(5); // false, 5 has been removed

mySet.size; // 4, we just removed one value
console.log(mySet); // Set [ 1, "some text", Object {a: 1, b: 2}, Object {a: 1, b: 2} ]

迭代 Sets

js

// iterate over items in set
// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
for (let item of mySet) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
for (let item of mySet.keys()) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
for (let item of mySet.values()) console.log(item);

// logs the items in the order: 1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}
//(key and value are the same here)
for (let [key, value] of mySet.entries()) console.log(key);

// convert Set object to an Array object, with Array.from
var myArr = Array.from(mySet); // [1, "some text", {"a": 1, "b": 2}, {"a": 1, "b": 2}]

// the following will also work if run in an HTML document
mySet.add(document.body);
mySet.has(document.querySelector("body")); // true

// converting between Set and Array
mySet2 = new Set([1, 2, 3, 4]);
mySet2.size; // 4
[...mySet2]; // [1, 2, 3, 4]

// intersect can be simulated via
var intersection = new Set([...set1].filter((x) => set2.has(x)));

// difference can be simulated via
var difference = new Set([...set1].filter((x) => !set2.has(x)));

// Iterate set entries with forEach
mySet.forEach(function (value) {
  console.log(value);
});

// 1
// 2
// 3
// 4

實作基本的 set 操作

js

Set.prototype.isSuperset = function (subset) {
  for (var elem of subset) {
    if (!this.has(elem)) {
      return false;
    }
  }
  return true;
};

Set.prototype.union = function (setB) {
  var union = new Set(this);
  for (var elem of setB) {
    union.add(elem);
  }
  return union;
};

Set.prototype.intersection = function (setB) {
  var intersection = new Set();
  for (var elem of setB) {
    if (this.has(elem)) {
      intersection.add(elem);
    }
  }
  return intersection;
};

Set.prototype.difference = function (setB) {
  var difference = new Set(this);
  for (var elem of setB) {
    difference.delete(elem);
  }
  return difference;
};

//Examples
var setA = new Set([1, 2, 3, 4]),
  setB = new Set([2, 3]),
  setC = new Set([3, 4, 5, 6]);

setA.isSuperset(setB); // => true
setA.union(setC); // => Set [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
setA.intersection(setC); // => Set [3, 4]
setA.difference(setC); // => Set [1, 2]

Array 物件關聯

js

var myArray = ["value1", "value2", "value3"];

// Use the regular Set constructor to transform an Array into a Set
var mySet = new Set(myArray);

mySet.has("value1"); // returns true

// Use the spread operator to transform a set into an Array.
console.log([...mySet]); // Will show you exactly the same Array as myArray

Strings 關聯

js

var text = "India";

var mySet = new Set(text); // Set ['I', 'n', 'd', 'i', 'a']
mySet.size; // 5

規範

Specification
ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-set-objects

瀏覽器相容性

BCD tables only load in the browser

參見