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概述

charAt() 方法从一个字符串中返回指定的字符。

语法

str.charAt(index)

参数

index
一个介于0 和字符串长度减1之间的整数。 (0~length-1)
如果没有提供索引,charAt() 将使用0。
 

描述

字符串中的字符从左向右索引,第一个字符的索引值为 0,最后一个字符(假设该字符位于字符串 stringName 中)的索引值为 stringName.length - 1。 如果指定的 index 值超出了该范围,则返回一个空字符串。

示例

例子:输出字符串中不同位置的字符

下例输出字符串 "Brave new world" 不同位置处的字符:

var anyString = "Brave new world";

console.log("The character at index 0   is '" + anyString.charAt(0)   + "'");
console.log("The character at index 1   is '" + anyString.charAt(1)   + "'");
console.log("The character at index 2   is '" + anyString.charAt(2)   + "'");
console.log("The character at index 3   is '" + anyString.charAt(3)   + "'");
console.log("The character at index 4   is '" + anyString.charAt(4)   + "'");
console.log("The character at index 999 is '" + anyString.charAt(999) + "'");

上面代码的输出为:

The character at index 0 is 'B'
The character at index 1 is 'r'
The character at index 2 is 'a'
The character at index 3 is 'v'
The character at index 4 is 'e'
The character at index 999 is ''

例子:获取所有字符

以下提供了一种确保通过字符串循环总是提供整个字符的方法,即使该字符串包含不在基本多文种平面(BMP)中的字符。

var str = 'A \uD87E\uDC04 Z'; // We could also use a non-BMP character directly
for (var i=0, chr; i < str.length; i++) {
  if ((chr = getWholeChar(str, i)) === false) {
    continue;
  } // Adapt this line at the top of each loop, passing in the whole string and
    // the current iteration and returning a variable to represent the 
    // individual character

  alert(chr);
}

function getWholeChar (str, i) {
  var code = str.charCodeAt(i);     
 
  if (isNaN(code)) {
    return ''; // Position not found
  }
  if (code < 0xD800 || code > 0xDFFF) {
    return str.charAt(i);
  }

  // High surrogate (could change last hex to 0xDB7F to treat high private
  // surrogates as single characters)
  if (0xD800 <= code && code <= 0xDBFF) { 
    if (str.length <= (i+1))  {
      throw 'High surrogate without following low surrogate';
    }
    var next = str.charCodeAt(i+1);
      if (0xDC00 > next || next > 0xDFFF) {
        throw 'High surrogate without following low surrogate';
      }
      return str.charAt(i)+str.charAt(i+1);
  }
  // Low surrogate (0xDC00 <= code && code <= 0xDFFF)
  if (i === 0) {
    throw 'Low surrogate without preceding high surrogate';
  }
  var prev = str.charCodeAt(i-1);
  
  // (could change last hex to 0xDB7F to treat high private
  // surrogates as single characters)
  if (0xD800 > prev || prev > 0xDBFF) { 
    throw 'Low surrogate without preceding high surrogate';
  }
  // We can pass over low surrogates now as the second component
  // in a pair which we have already processed
  return false; 
}

在允许解构分配的独占JavaScript 1.7+环境(如Firefox)中,以下是一个更简洁和更灵活的替代方法,它会自动递增一个递增变量(如果字符保证它是一个替代对)。

var str = 'A\uD87E\uDC04Z'; // We could also use a non-BMP character directly
for (var i=0, chr; i < str.length; i++) {
  [chr, i] = getWholeCharAndI(str, i);
  // Adapt this line at the top of each loop, passing in the whole string and
  // the current iteration and returning an array with the individual character
  // and 'i' value (only changed if a surrogate pair)

  alert(chr);
}

function getWholeCharAndI (str, i) {
  var code = str.charCodeAt(i);

  if (isNaN(code)) {
    return ''; // Position not found
  }
  if (code < 0xD800 || code > 0xDFFF) {
    return [str.charAt(i), i]; // Normal character, keeping 'i' the same
  }

  // High surrogate (could change last hex to 0xDB7F to treat high private 
  // surrogates as single characters)
  if (0xD800 <= code && code <= 0xDBFF) { 
    if (str.length <= (i+1))  {
      throw 'High surrogate without following low surrogate';
    }
    var next = str.charCodeAt(i+1);
      if (0xDC00 > next || next > 0xDFFF) {
        throw 'High surrogate without following low surrogate';
      }
      return [str.charAt(i)+str.charAt(i+1), i+1];
  }
  // Low surrogate (0xDC00 <= code && code <= 0xDFFF)
  if (i === 0) {
    throw 'Low surrogate without preceding high surrogate';
  }
  var prev = str.charCodeAt(i-1);

  // (could change last hex to 0xDB7F to treat high private surrogates
  // as single characters)
  if (0xD800 > prev || prev > 0xDBFF) { 
    throw 'Low surrogate without preceding high surrogate';
  }
  // Return the next character instead (and increment)
  return [str.charAt(i+1), i+1]; 
}

示例:修复charAt以支持非基本多文种平面(BMP)字符

虽然上面的例子对于那些希望支持非BMP字符的用户可能更有用(因为它不要求调用者知道任何非BMP字符可能出现在哪里),在人们希望的情况下,在选择字符 通过索引,将字符串中的替代对作为它们表示的单个字符,可以使用以下:

function fixedCharAt (str, idx) {
  var ret = '';
  str += '';
  var end = str.length;

  var surrogatePairs = /[\uD800-\uDBFF][\uDC00-\uDFFF]/g;
  while ((surrogatePairs.exec(str)) != null) {
    var li = surrogatePairs.lastIndex;
    if (li - 2 < idx) {
      idx++;
    } else {
      break;
    }
  }

  if (idx >= end || idx < 0) {
    return '';
  }

  ret += str.charAt(idx);

  if (/[\uD800-\uDBFF]/.test(ret) && /[\uDC00-\uDFFF]/.test(str.charAt(idx+1))) {
    // Go one further, since one of the "characters" is part of a surrogate pair
    ret += str.charAt(idx+1); 
  }
  return ret;
}

规范

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 1st Edition. Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
String.prototype.charAt
Standard  
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
String.prototype.charAt
Standard  

浏览器兼容性

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)

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