<menu>

这是一个实验中的功能
此功能某些浏览器尚在开发中,请参考浏览器兼容性表格以得到在不同浏览器中适合使用的前缀。由于该功能对应的标准文档可能被重新修订,所以在未来版本的浏览器中该功能的语法和行为可能随之改变。

HTML <menu> 元素呈现了一组用户可执行或激活的命令。这既包含了可能出现在屏幕顶端的列表菜单,也包含了那些隐藏在按钮之下、当点击按钮后显示出来的文本菜单。

Content categories Flow content. Additionally, if in the list menu state, palpable content. (list menu is the default state, unless the parent element is a <menu> in the context menu state.)
Permitted content If the element is in the list menu state: flow content, or alternatively, zero or more occurrences of <li>, <script>, and <template>.
If the element is in the context menu state: zero or more occurrences, in any order, of <menu> (context menu state only), <menuitem>, <hr>, <script>, and <template>.
Tag omission 不允许,开始标签和结束标签都不能省略。
Permitted parents Any element that accepts flow content.
Permitted ARIA roles None
DOM interface HTMLMenuElement

属性

该元素支持全局属性,以及以下属性。

label
The name of the menu as shown to the user. Used within nested menus, to provide a label through which the submenu can be accessed. Must only be specified when the parent element is a <menu> in the context menu state.
type
This attribute indicates the kind of menu being declared, and can be one of two values.
  • context : Indicates the popup menu state, which represents a group of commands activated through another element. This might be as a button menu referenced by a menu attribute of a <button> element, or as context menu for an element with a contextmenu attribute. This value is the default if the attribute is missing and the parent element is also a <menu> element.
  • toolbar: Indicates the toolbar state, which represents a toolbar consisting of a series of commands for user interaction. This might be in the form of an unordered list of <li> elements, or, if the element has no <li> element children, flow content describing available commands. This value is the default if the attribute is missing.

使用备注

<menu><ul> 元素都呈现了无序列表元素。最主要的区别是,<ul> 主要是为了展示选项,而 <menu> 则是为了交互。

An HTML menu can be used to create context menus (typically activated by right-clicking another element) or toolbars.

Context menus consist of a <menu> element which contains <menuitem> elements for each selectable option in the menu, <menu> elements for submenus within the menu, and <hr> elements for separator lines to break up the menu's content into sections. Context menus are then attached to the element they're activated from using either the associated element's contextmenu attribute or, for button-activated menus attached to <button> elements, the menu attribute.

Toolbar menus consist of a <menu> element whose content is described in one of two ways: either as an unordered list of items represented by <li> elements (each representing a command or option the user can utilize), or (if there are no <li> elements), flow content describing the available commands and options.

这个元素在 HTML4 中被弃用,但在 HTML 5.1 和 HTML living standard 中被重新推荐使用。 这份文档描述的是当前 Firefox 上的实现。根据 HTML 5.1 的规定,<list> 元素的类型可能会更改为<toolbar>

例子

右键菜单

已废弃
该特性已经从 Web 标准中删除,虽然一些浏览器目前仍然支持它,但也许会在未来的某个时间停止支持,请尽量不要使用该特性。

HTML

<!-- A <div> element with a context menu -->
<div contextmenu="popup-menu">
  Right-click to see the adjusted context menu
</div>

<menu type="context" id="popup-menu">
  <menuitem>Action</menuitem>
  <menuitem>Another action</menuitem>
  <hr/>
  <menuitem>Separated action</menuitem>
</menu>

CSS

div {
  width: 300px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: lightgreen;
}

结果

菜单按钮

Menu buttons haven't been implemented in any known browsers yet. The type attribute on the <menu> element is now obsolete.

<menuitem> element is obsolete.

HTML

<!-- A button, which displays a menu when clicked. -->
<button type="menu" menu="popup-menu">
  Dropdown
</button>

<menu type="context" id="popup-menu">
  <menuitem>Action</menuitem>
  <menuitem>Another action</menuitem>
  <hr/>
  <menuitem>Separated action</menuitem>
</menu>

Result

Toolbar

Toolbar menus haven't been implemented in any known browsers yet.

HTML

<!-- A context menu for a simple editor,
   - containing two menu buttons. -->
<menu type="toolbar">
  <li>
    <button type="menu" menu="file-menu">File</button>
    <menu type="context" id="file-menu">
      <menuitem label="New..." onclick="newFile()">
      <menuitem label="Save..." onclick="saveFile()">
    </menu>
  </li>
  <li>
    <button type="menu" menu="edit-menu">Edit</button>
    <menu type="context" id="edit-menu">
      <menuitem label="Cut..." onclick="cutEdit()">
      <menuitem label="Copy..." onclick="copyEdit()">
      <menuitem label="Paste..." onclick="pasteEdit()">
    </menu>
  </li>
</menu>

结果

规范

规范 状态 备注
HTML Living Standard
<menu>
Living Standard No change from latest snapshot, Unknown
Unknown
<menu>
Unknown No changes
HTML 5.2
<menu>
Recommendation Snapshot of the HTML Living Standard.
Removed the context type.
HTML 5.1
<menu>
Recommendation Snapshot of the HTML Living Standard.
Initial definition.

浏览器兼容性

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
menu
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge Full support YesFirefox Full support 8IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android Full support 8
Notes
Full support 8
Notes
Notes Nested menus are not supported.
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
Menus on <button> element
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
<hr> creates a separator
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox Full support 51IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android Full support 51Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
label
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox Full support 8IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoFirefox Android Full support 8
Notes
Full support 8
Notes
Notes Nested menus are not supported.
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

参见