Window.devicePixelRatio

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Window 인터페이스의 devicePixelRatio 읽기 전용 속성은 현재 표시 장치의 물리적 픽셀과 CSS 픽셀의 비율을 반환합니다. CSS 픽셀의 크기를 물리적 픽셀의 크기로 나눈 값으로 해석해도 됩니다. 또 다른 해석은, 하나의 CSS 픽셀을 그릴 때 사용해야 하는 장치 픽셀의 수라고 할 수 있습니다.

devicePixelRatio 속성은 HiDPI/Retina 디스플레이처럼 같은 객체를 그릴 때 더 많은 픽셀을 사용해 보다 선명한 이미지를 표현하는 화면과, 표준 디스플레이의 렌더링 차이에 대응할 때 유용합니다.

window.matchMedia()를 사용하면, 사용자가 창을 드래그 해 디스플레이의 픽셀 밀도가 바뀌는 등의 상황에서 devicePixelRatio가 바뀌는지 알아낼 수 있습니다. 아래의 예제를 참고하세요.

구문

value = window.devicePixelRatio

예제

Correcting resolution in a <canvas>

A <canvas> can appear too blurry on retina screens. Use window.devicePixelRatio to determine how much extra pixel density should be added to allow for a sharper image.

HTML

<canvas id="canvas"></canvas>

JavaScript

var canvas = document.getElementById('canvas');
var ctx = canvas.getContext('2d');

// Set display size (css pixels).
var size = 200;
canvas.style.width = size + "px";
canvas.style.height = size + "px";

// Set actual size in memory (scaled to account for extra pixel density).
var scale = window.devicePixelRatio; // Change to 1 on retina screens to see blurry canvas.
canvas.width = size * scale;
canvas.height = size * scale;

// Normalize coordinate system to use css pixels.
ctx.scale(scale, scale);

ctx.fillStyle = "#bada55";
ctx.fillRect(10, 10, 300, 300);
ctx.fillStyle = "#ffffff";
ctx.font = '18px Arial';
ctx.textAlign = 'center';
ctx.textBaseline = 'middle';

var x = size / 2;
var y = size / 2;

var textString = "I love MDN";
ctx.fillText(textString, x, y);

This image describe the impact of different value on retina display.

Monitoring screen resolution or zoom level changes

In this example, we'll set up a media query and watch it to see when the device resolution changes, so that we can check the value of devicePixelRatio to handle any updates we need to.

JavaScript

The JavaScript code creates the media query that monitors the device resolution and checks the value of devicePixelRatio any time it changes.

let pixelRatioBox = document.querySelector(".pixel-ratio");
let mqString = `(resolution: ${window.devicePixelRatio}dppx)`;

const updatePixelRatio = () => {
  let pr = window.devicePixelRatio;
  let prString = (pr * 100).toFixed(0);
  pixelRatioBox.innerText = `${prString}% (${pr.toFixed(2)})`;
}

updatePixelRatio();

matchMedia(mqString).addListener(updatePixelRatio);

The string mqString is set up to be the media query itself. The media query, which begins as (resolution: 1dppx) (for standard displays) or (resolution: 2dppx) (for Retina/HiDPI displays), checks to see if the current display resolution matches a specific number of device dots per px.

The updatePixelRatio() function fetches the current value of devicePixelRatio, then sets the innerText of the element pixelRatioBox to a string which displays the ratio both as a percentage and as a raw decimal value with up to two decimal places.

Then the updatePixelRatio() function is called once to display the starting value, after which the media query is created using matchMedia() and addEventListener() is called to set up updatePixelRatio() as a handler for the change event.

HTML

The HTML creates the boxes containing the instructions and the pixel-ratio box that will display the current pixel ratio information.

<div class="container">
  <div class="inner-container">
    <p>This example demonstrates the effect of zooming the page in
       and out (or moving it to a screen with a different scaling
       factor) on the value of the property <code>Window.devicePixelRatio</code>.
       Try it and watch what happens!</p>
  </div>
    <div class="pixel-ratio"></div>
</div>

CSS

body {
  font: 22px arial, sans-serif;
}

.container {
  top: 2em;
  width: 22em;
  height: 14em;
  border: 2px solid #22d;
  margin: 0 auto;
  padding: 0;
  background-color: #a9f;
}

.inner-container {
  padding: 1em 2em;
  text-align: justify;
  text-justify: auto;
}

.pixel-ratio {
  position: relative;
  margin: auto;
  height: 1.2em;
  text-align: right;
  bottom: 0;
  right: 1em;
  font-weight: bold;
}

Result

명세

Specification Status Comment
CSS Object Model (CSSOM) View Module
The definition of 'Window.devicePixelRatio' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition

브라우저 호환성

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
devicePixelRatioChrome Full support YesEdge Full support 12Firefox Full support 49IE Full support 11Opera Full support 41Safari Full support 9.1WebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesFirefox Android Full support YesOpera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support 9.3Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support

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