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slice() 方法會回傳一個新陣列物件,為原陣列選擇之 beginend(不含 end)部分的淺拷貝(shallow copy)。而原本的陣列將不會被修改。

語法

arr.slice([begin[, end]])

參數

begin 選擇性
自哪一個索引(起始為 0)開始提取拷貝。
可使用負數索引,表示由陣列的最末項開始提取。slice(-2) 代表拷貝陣列中的最後兩個元素。
假如 begin 為 undefined,則 slice 會從索引 0 開始提取。
end 選擇性
至哪一個索引(起始為 0)之前停止提取。slice 提取但不包含至索引 end
舉例來說,slice(1,4) 提取了陣列中第二個元素至第四個元素前為止(元素索引 1、2 以及 3)來拷貝。
可使用負數索引,表示由陣列的最末項開始提取。slice(2,-1) 代表拷貝陣列中第三個元素至倒數第二個元素。
若省略了 end,則 slice 會提取至陣列的最後一個元素(arr.length)。
假如 end 大於陣列的長度,slice 會提取至陣列的最後一個元素(arr.length)。

回傳值

一個包含提取之元素的新陣列。

說明

slice does not alter the original array. It returns a shallow copy of elements from the original array. Elements of the original array are copied into the returned array as follows:

  • For object references (and not the actual object), slice copies object references into the new array. Both the original and new array refer to the same object. If a referenced object changes, the changes are visible to both the new and original arrays.
  • For strings, numbers and booleans (not String, Number and Boolean objects), slice copies the values into the new array. Changes to the string, number or boolean in one array do not affect the other array.

If a new element is added to either array, the other array is not affected.

範例

Return a portion of an existing array

var fruits = ['Banana', 'Orange', 'Lemon', 'Apple', 'Mango'];
var citrus = fruits.slice(1, 3);

// fruits contains ['Banana', 'Orange', 'Lemon', 'Apple', 'Mango']
// citrus contains ['Orange','Lemon']

Using slice

In the following example, slice creates a new array, newCar, from myCar. Both include a reference to the object myHonda. When the color of myHonda is changed to purple, both arrays reflect the change.

// Using slice, create newCar from myCar.
var myHonda = { color: 'red', wheels: 4, engine: { cylinders: 4, size: 2.2 } };
var myCar = [myHonda, 2, 'cherry condition', 'purchased 1997'];
var newCar = myCar.slice(0, 2);

// Display the values of myCar, newCar, and the color of myHonda
//  referenced from both arrays.
console.log('myCar = ' + JSON.stringify(myCar));
console.log('newCar = ' + JSON.stringify(newCar));
console.log('myCar[0].color = ' + myCar[0].color);
console.log('newCar[0].color = ' + newCar[0].color);

// Change the color of myHonda.
myHonda.color = 'purple';
console.log('The new color of my Honda is ' + myHonda.color);

// Display the color of myHonda referenced from both arrays.
console.log('myCar[0].color = ' + myCar[0].color);
console.log('newCar[0].color = ' + newCar[0].color);

This script writes:

myCar = [{color: 'red', wheels: 4, engine: {cylinders: 4, size: 2.2}}, 2,
         'cherry condition', 'purchased 1997']
newCar = [{color: 'red', wheels: 4, engine: {cylinders: 4, size: 2.2}}, 2]
myCar[0].color = red 
newCar[0].color = red
The new color of my Honda is purple
myCar[0].color = purple
newCar[0].color = purple

類陣例(Array-like)物件

slice method can also be called to convert Array-like objects / collections to a new Array. You just bind the method to the object. The arguments inside a function is an example of an 'array-like object'.

function list() {
  return Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
}

var list1 = list(1, 2, 3); // [1, 2, 3]

Binding can be done with the .call function of Function.prototype and it can also be reduced using [].slice.call(arguments) instead of Array.prototype.slice.call. Anyway, it can be simplified using bind.

var unboundSlice = Array.prototype.slice;
var slice = Function.prototype.call.bind(unboundSlice);

function list() {
  return slice(arguments);
}

var list1 = list(1, 2, 3); // [1, 2, 3]

Streamlining cross-browser behavior

Although host objects (such as DOM objects) are not required by spec to follow the Mozilla behavior when converted by Array.prototype.slice and IE < 9 does not do so, versions of IE starting with version 9 do allow this. “Shimming” it can allow reliable cross-browser behavior. As long as other modern browsers continue to support this ability, as currently do IE, Mozilla, Chrome, Safari, and Opera, developers reading (DOM-supporting) slice code relying on this shim will not be misled by the semantics; they can safely rely on the semantics to provide the now apparently de facto standard behavior. (The shim also fixes IE to work with the second argument of slice() being an explicit null/undefined value as earlier versions of IE also did not allow but all modern browsers, including IE >= 9, now do.)

/**
 * Shim for "fixing" IE's lack of support (IE < 9) for applying slice
 * on host objects like NamedNodeMap, NodeList, and HTMLCollection
 * (technically, since host objects have been implementation-dependent,
 * at least before ES2015, IE hasn't needed to work this way).
 * Also works on strings, fixes IE < 9 to allow an explicit undefined
 * for the 2nd argument (as in Firefox), and prevents errors when
 * called on other DOM objects.
 */
(function () {
  'use strict';
  var _slice = Array.prototype.slice;

  try {
    // Can't be used with DOM elements in IE < 9
    _slice.call(document.documentElement);
  } catch (e) { // Fails in IE < 9
    // This will work for genuine arrays, array-like objects, 
    // NamedNodeMap (attributes, entities, notations),
    // NodeList (e.g., getElementsByTagName), HTMLCollection (e.g., childNodes),
    // and will not fail on other DOM objects (as do DOM elements in IE < 9)
    Array.prototype.slice = function(begin, end) {
      // IE < 9 gets unhappy with an undefined end argument
      end = (typeof end !== 'undefined') ? end : this.length;

      // For native Array objects, we use the native slice function
      if (Object.prototype.toString.call(this) === '[object Array]'){
        return _slice.call(this, begin, end); 
      }

      // For array like object we handle it ourselves.
      var i, cloned = [],
        size, len = this.length;

      // Handle negative value for "begin"
      var start = begin || 0;
      start = (start >= 0) ? start : Math.max(0, len + start);

      // Handle negative value for "end"
      var upTo = (typeof end == 'number') ? Math.min(end, len) : len;
      if (end < 0) {
        upTo = len + end;
      }

      // Actual expected size of the slice
      size = upTo - start;

      if (size > 0) {
        cloned = new Array(size);
        if (this.charAt) {
          for (i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            cloned[i] = this.charAt(start + i);
          }
        } else {
          for (i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            cloned[i] = this[start + i];
          }
        }
      }

      return cloned;
    };
  }
}());

規範

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 3rd Edition (ECMA-262) Standard Initial definition. Implemented in JavaScript 1.2.
ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.slice' in that specification.
Standard  
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.slice' in that specification.
Standard  
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Array.prototype.slice' in that specification.
Draft  

瀏覽器相容性

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobileServer
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidiOS SafariSamsung InternetNode.js
Basic supportChrome Full support 1Edge Full support YesFirefox Full support 1IE Full support YesOpera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yesnodejs Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support

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