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    Date.prototype.toLocaleDateString()

    翻译正在进行中。

    概述

    toLocaleDateString() 方法返回该日期对象日期部分的字符串,该字符串格式因不同语言而不同。新增的参数 locales 和 options 使程序能够指定使用哪种语言格式化规则,允许定制该方法的表现(behavior)。在旧版本浏览器中, localesoptions 参数被忽略,使用的语言环境和返回的字符串格式是各自独立实现的。

    语法

    dateObj.toLocaleDateString([locales [, options]])

    参数

     查看浏览器兼容性小节,看下哪些浏览器支持 locales 和 options 参数,还可以参看例子: 检测 localesoptions 参数支持情况

    locales

    Optional. A string with a BCP 47 language tag, or an array of such strings. For the general form and interpretation of the locales argument, see the Intl page. The following Unicode extension keys are allowed:

    nu
    Numbering system. Possible values include: "arab", "arabext", "bali", "beng", "deva", "fullwide", "gujr", "guru", "hanidec", "khmr", "knda", "laoo", "latn", "limb", "mlym", "mong", "mymr", "orya", "tamldec", "telu", "thai", "tibt".
    ca
    Calendar. Possible values include: "buddhist", "chinese", "coptic", "ethioaa", "ethiopic", "gregory", "hebrew", "indian", "islamic", "islamicc", "iso8601", "japanese", "persian", "roc".
    options

    Optional. An object with some or all of the following properties:

    localeMatcher
    The locale matching algorithm to use. Possible values are "lookup" and "best fit"; the default is "best fit". For information about this option, see the Intl page.
    timeZone
    The time zone to use. The only value implementations must recognize is "UTC"; the default is the runtime's default time zone. Implementations may also recognize the time zone names of the IANA time zone database, such as "Asia/Shanghai", "Asia/Kolkata", "America/New_York".
    hour12
    Whether to use 12-hour time (as opposed to 24-hour time). Possible values are true and false; the default is locale dependent.
    formatMatcher
    The format matching algorithm to use. Possible values are "basic" and "best fit"; the default is "best fit". See the following paragraphs for information about the use of this property.

    The following properties describe the date-time components to use in formatted output, and their desired representations. Implementations are required to support at least the following subsets:

    • weekday, year, month, day, hour, minute, second
    • weekday, year, month, day
    • year, month, day
    • year, month
    • month, day
    • hour, minute, second
    • hour, minute

    Implementations may support other subsets, and requests will be negotiated against all available subset-representation combinations to find the best match. Two algorithms are available for this negotiation and selected by the formatMatcher property: A fully specified "basic" algorithm and an implementation dependent "best fit" algorithm.

    weekday
    The representation of the weekday. Possible values are "narrow", "short", "long".
    era
    The representation of the era. Possible values are "narrow", "short", "long".
    year
    The representation of the year. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit".
    month
    The representation of the month. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit", "narrow", "short", "long".
    day
    The representation of the day. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit".
    hour
    The representation of the hour. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit".
    minute
    The representation of the minute. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit".
    second
    The representation of the second. Possible values are "numeric", "2-digit".
    timeZoneName
    The representation of the time zone name. Possible values are "short", "long".

    The default value for each date-time component property is undefined, but if the weekday, year, month, day properties are all undefined, then year, month, and day are assumed to be "numeric".

    例子

    例子:使用toLocaleDateString

    没有指定语言环境(locale)时,返回一个使用默认语言环境和格式设置(options)的格式化字符串。

    var date = new Date(Date.UTC(2012, 11, 12, 3, 0, 0));
    
    // toLocaleDateString without arguments depends on the implementation,
    // the default locale, and the default time zone
    date.toLocaleDateString();
    // → "12/11/2012" if run in en-US locale with time zone America/Los_Angeles

    例子:检测 localesoptions 参数支持情况

    locales 和 options 参数不是所有的浏览器都支持。为了检测一种实现环境(implementation)是否支持它们,可以使用不合法的语言标签,如果实现环境支持该参数,则会抛出一个 RangeError 异常,反之会忽略参数。

    function toLocaleDateStringSupportsLocales() {
        try {
            new Date().toLocaleDateString("i");
        } catch (e) {
            return e​.name === "RangeError";
        }
        return false;
    }
    

    例子:使用locales

    下例展示了本地化日期格式的一些变化。为了在应用的用户界面得到某种语言的日期格式,必须确保使用 locales 参数指定了该语言(可能还需要设置某些回退语言)。

    var date = new Date(Date.UTC(2012, 11, 20, 3, 0, 0));
    
    // formats below assume the local time zone of the locale;
    // America/Los_Angeles for the US
    
    // US English uses month-day-year order
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString("en-US"));
    // → "12/19/2012"
    
    // British English uses day-month-year order
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString("en-GB"));
    // → "20/12/2012"
    
    // Korean uses year-month-day order
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString("ko-KR"));
    // → "2012. 12. 20."
    
    // Arabic in most Arabic speaking countries uses real Arabic digits
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString("ar-EG"));
    // → "٢٠‏/١٢‏/٢٠١٢"
    
    // for Japanese, applications may want to use the Japanese calendar,
    // where 2012 was the year 24 of the Heisei era
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString("ja-JP-u-ca-japanese"));
    // → "24/12/20"
    
    // when requesting a language that may not be supported, such as
    // Balinese, include a fallback language, in this case Indonesian
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString(["ban", "id"]));
    // → "20/12/2012"
    

    例子:使用options

    可以使用 options 参数来自定义 toLocaleDateString 方法返回的字符串。

    var date = new Date(Date.UTC(2012, 11, 20, 3, 0, 0));
    
    // request a weekday along with a long date
    var options = {weekday: "long", year: "numeric", month: "long", day: "numeric"};
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString("de-DE", options));
    // → "Donnerstag, 20. Dezember 2012"
    
    // an application may want to use UTC and make that visible
    options.timeZone = "UTC";
    options.timeZoneName = "short";
    alert(date.toLocaleDateString("en-US", options));
    // → "Thursday, December 20, 2012, GMT"
    

    性能

    当格式化大量日期时,最好创建一个 Intl.DateTimeFormat 对象,然后使用该对象 format 属性提供的方法。

    规范

    规范版本 规范状态 注解
    ECMAScript 3rd Edition. Implemented in JavaScript 1.0 Standard Initial definition.
    ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
    Date.prototype.toLocaleDateString
    Standard  
    ECMAScript 6 (ECMA-262)
    Date.prototype.toLocaleDateString
    Release Candidate  
    ECMAScript Internationalization API Specification, 1st Edition Standard Defines locales and options arguments.

    浏览器兼容性

    Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
    locales and options arguments 24 29 (29) 11 15 未实现
    Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
    locales and options arguments 未实现 26 未实现

    bug 864843

    未实现 未实现 未实现

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