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Understanding WebAssembly text format

To enable WebAssembly to be read and edited by humans, there is a textual representation of the wasm binary format. This is an intermediate form designed to exposed in text editors, browser developer tools, etc. This article explains how that text format works, in terms of the raw syntax, and how it is related to the underlying bytecode it represents — and the wrapper objects representing wasm in JavaScript.

Note: This is potentially overkill if you are a web developer who just wants to load a wasm module into a page and use it in your code (see Using the WebAssembly JavaScript API), but it is more useful if for example, you want to write wasm modules to optimize the performance of your JavaScript library, or build your own WebAssembly compiler.


In both the binary and textual formats, the fundamental unit of code in WebAssembly is a module.  In the text format, a module is represented as one big S-expression.  S-expressions are a very old and very simple textual format for representing trees, and thus we can think of a module as a tree of nodes that describe the module’s structure and its code.  Unlike the Abstract Syntax Tree of a programming language, though, WebAssembly’s tree is pretty flat, mostly consisting of lists of instructions.

First, let’s see what an S-expression looks like.  Each node in the tree goes inside a pair of parentheses — ( ... ).  The first label inside the parenthesis tells you what type of node it is, and after that there is a space-separated list of either attributes or child nodes.  So that means the WebAssembly S-expression:

(module (memory 1) (func))

represents a tree with the root node “module” and two child nodes, a "memory" node with the attribute "1" and a "func" node.  We’ll see shortly what these nodes actually mean.

The simplest module

Let's start with the simplest, shortest possible wasm module.


This module is totally empty, but is still a valid module.

If we convert our module to binary now (see Converting WebAssembly text format to wasm), we’ll see just the 8 byte module header described in the binary format:

0000000: 0061 736d              ; WASM_BINARY_MAGIC
0000004: 0d00 0000              ; WASM_BINARY_VERSION

Adding functionality to your module

Ok, that’s not very interesting, let’s add some executable code to this module.

All code in a webassembly module is grouped into functions, which have the following pseudo-code structure:

( func <signature> <locals> <body> )
  • The signature declares what the function takes (parameters) and returns (return values).
  • The locals are like vars in JavaScript, but with explicit types declared.
  • The body is just a linear list of low-level instructions.

So this is similar to functions in other languages, even if it looks different because it is an S-expression.

Signatures and parameters

The signature is a sequence of parameter type declarations followed by a list of return type declarations. It is worth noting here that:

  • The absence of a (result) means the function doesn’t return anything.
  • In the current iteration, there can be at most 1 return type, but later this will be relaxed to any number.

Each parameter has a type explicitly declared; wasm currently has four available types:

  • i32: 32-bit integer
  • i64: 64-bit integer
  • f32: 32-bit float
  • f64: 64-bit float

A single parameter is written (param i32) and the return type is written (result i32), hence a binary function that takes two 32-bit integers and returns a 64-bit float would be written like this:

(func (param i32) (param i32) (result f64) ... )

After the signature, locals are listed with their type, for example (local i32). Parameters are basically just locals that are initialized with the value of the corresponding argument passed by the caller.

Getting and setting locals and parameters

Locals/parameters can be read and written by the body of the function with the get_local and set_local instructions.

The get_local/set_local commands refer to the item to be got/set by its numeric index: parameters are referred to first, in order of their declaration, followed by locals in order of their declaration.  So given the following function:

(func (param i32) (param f32) (local f64)
  get_local 0
  get_local 1
  get_local 2)

The instruction get_local 0 would get the i32 parameter, get_local 1 would get the f32 parameter, and get_local 2 would get the f64 local.

There is another issue here — using numeric indices to refer to items can be confusing and annoying, so the text format allows you to name parameters, locals, and most other items simply by including a name prefixed by a dollar symbol ($) just before the type declaration.

Thus you could rewrite our previous signature like so:

(func (param $p1 i32) (param $p2 f32) (local $loc i32) …)

And then could write get_local $p1 instead of get_local 0, etc.  (Note what when this text gets converted to binary, though, the binary will contain only the integer.)

Stack machines

Before we can write a function body, we have to talk about one more thing: stack machines. Although the browser compiles it to something more efficient, wasm execution is defined in terms of a stack machine where the basic idea is that every type of instruction pushes and/or pops a certain number of i32/i64/f32/f64 values from a stack.

For example, get_local is defined to push the value of the local it read onto the stack, and i32.add pops two i32 values (it implicitly grabs the previous two values pushed onto the stack), computes their sum (modulo 2^32) and pushes the resulting i32 value.

When a function is called, it starts with an empty stack which is gradually filled up and emptied as the body’s instructions are executed. So for example, after executing the following function:

(func (param $p i32)
  get_local $p
  get_local $p

The stack contains exactly one i32 value — the result of the expression ($p + $p), which is handled by i32.add. The return value of a function is just the final value left on the stack.

The WebAssembly validation rules ensure the stack matches exactly: if you declare a (result f32), then the stack must contain exactly one f32 at the end.  If there is no result type, the stack must be empty.

Our first function body

As mentioned before, the function body is simply a list of instructions that are followed as the function is called. Putting this together with what we have already learned, we can finally define a module containing our own simple function:

  (func (param $lhs i32) (param $rhs i32) (result i32)
    get_local $lhs
    get_local $rhs

This function gets two parameters, adds them together, and returns the result.

There are a lot more things that can be put inside function bodies, but we will start off simple for now, and you’ll see a lot more examples as you go along. For a full list of the available opcodes, consult the Semantics reference.

Calling the function

Our function won’t do very much on its own — now we need to call it. How do we do that? Like in an ES2015 module, wasm functions must be explicitly exported by an export statement inside the module.

Like locals, functions are identified by an index by default, but for convenience, they can be named. Let's start by doing this — first, we'll add a name preceded by a dollar sign, just after the func keyword:

(func $add … )

Now we need to add an export declaration — this looks like so:

(export "add" (func $add))

Here, add is the name the function will be identified by in JavaScript whereas $add picks out which WebAssembly function inside the Module is being exported.

So our final module (for now) looks like this:

  (func $add (param $lhs i32) (param $rhs i32) (result i32)
    get_local $lhs
    get_local $rhs
  (export "add" (func $add))

If you want to follow along with the example, save the above our module into a file called add.wat, then convert it into a binary file called add.wasm using wabt (see Converting WebAssembly text format to wasm for details).

Next, we’ll load our binary into a typed array called addCode (as described in Fetching WebAssembly Bytecode), compile and instantiate it, and execute our add function in JavaScript (we can now find add() in the exports property of the instance):

fetchAndInstantiate('add.wasm').then(function(instance) {
   console.log(instance.exports.add(1, 2));  // "3"

// fetchAndInstantiate() found in wasm-utils.js
function fetchAndInstantiate(url, importObject) {
  return fetch(url).then(response =>
  ).then(bytes =>
    WebAssembly.instantiate(bytes, importObject)
  ).then(results =>

Note: You can find this example in GitHub as add.html (see it live also). Also see WebAssembly.instantiate() for more details about the instantiate function, and wasm-utils.js for the fetchAndInstantiate() source code.

Exploring fundamentals

Now we’ve covered the real basics, let’s move on to look at some more advanced features.

Calling functions from other functions in the same module

The call instruction calls a single function, given its index or name. For example, the following module contains two functions — one just returns the value 42, the other returns the result of calling the first plus one:

  (func $getAnswer (result i32)
    i32.const 42)
  (func (export "getAnswerPlus1") (result i32)
    call $getAnswer
    i32.const 1

Note: i32.const just defines a 32-bit integer and pushes it onto the stack. You could swap out the i32 for any of the other available types, and change the value of the const to whatever you like (here we’ve set the value to 42).

In this example you’ll notice an (export "getAnswerPlus1") section, declared just after the func statement in the second function — this is a shorthand way of declaring that we want to export this function, and defining the name we want to export it as.

This is functionally equivalent to including a separate function statement outside the function, elsewhere in the module in the same manner as we did before, e.g.:

(export "getAnswerPlus1" (func $functionName))

The JavaScript code to call our above module looks like so:

fetchAndInstantiate('call.wasm').then(function(instance) {
  console.log(instance.exports.getAnswerPlus1());  // "43"

Note: You can find this example on GitHub as call.html (see it live also). Again, see wasm-utils.js for the fetchAndInstantiate() source.

Importing functions from JavaScript

We have already seen JavaScript calling WebAssembly functions, but what about WebAssembly calling JavaScript functions? WebAssembly doesn’t actually have any built-in knowledge of JavaScript, but it does have a general way to import functions that can accept either JavaScript or wasm functions. Let’s look at an example:

  (import "console" "log" (func $log (param i32)))
  (func (export "logIt")
    i32.const 13
    call $log))

WebAssembly has a two-level namespace so the import statement here is saying that we’re asking to import the log function from the console module. You can also see that the exported logIt function calls the imported function using the call instruction we introduced above.

Imported functions are just like normal functions: they have a signature that WebAssembly validation checks statically, and they are given an index and can be named and called.

JavaScript functions have no notion of signature, so any JavaScript function can be passed, regardless of the import’s declared signature. Once a module declares an import, the caller of WebAssembly.instantiate() must pass in an import object that has the corresponding properties.

For the above, we need an object (let's call it importObject) such that importObject.console.log is a JavaScript function.

This would look like the following:

var importObject = {
  console: {
    log: function(arg) {

fetchAndInstantiate('logger.wasm', importObject).then(function(instance) {

Note: You can find this example on GitHub as logger.html (see it live also).

WebAssembly Memory

The above example is a pretty terrible logging function: it only prints a single integer!  What if we wanted to log a text string? To deal with strings and other more complex data types, WebAssembly provides memory. According to WebAssembly, memory is just a large array of bytes that can grow over time. WebAssembly contains instructions like i32.load and for reading and writing from linear memory.

From JavaScript’s point of view, it’s is as though memory is all inside one big (resizable) ArrayBuffer. That’s literally all that asm.js has to play with (except that it isn't resizable; see the asm.js Programming model).

So a string is just a sequence of bytes somewhere inside this linear memory. Let's assume that we’ve written a suitable string of bytes to memory; how do we pass that string out to JavaScript?

The key is that JavaScript can create WebAssembly linear memory instances via the WebAssembly.Memory() interface, and access an existing memory instance (currently you can only have one per module instance) using the associated instance methods. Memory instances have a buffer getter, which returns an ArrayBuffer that points at the whole linear memory.

Memory instances can also grow, for example via the Memory.grow() method in JavaScript. When growth occurs, since ArrayBuffers can’t change size, the current ArrayBuffer is detached and a new ArrayBuffer is created to point to the newer, bigger memory. This means all we need to do to pass a string to JavaScript is to pass out the offset of the string in linear memory along with some way to indicate the length.

While there are many different ways to encode a string’s length in the string itself (for example, C strings); for simplicity here we just pass both offset and length as parameters:

(import "console" "log" (func $log (param i32) (param i32)))

On the JavaScript side, we can use the TextDecoder API to easily decode our bytes into a JavaScript string.  (We specify utf8 here, but many other encodings are supported.)

consoleLogString(offset, length) {
  var bytes = new Uint8Array(memory.buffer, offset, length);
  var string = new TextDecoder('utf8').decode(bytes);

The last missing piece of the puzzle is where consoleLogString gets access to the WebAssembly memory. WebAssembly gives us a lot of flexibility here: we can either create a Memory object in JavaScript and have the WebAssembly module import the memory, or we can have the WebAssembly module create the memory and export it to JavaScript.

For simplicity, let's create it in JavaScript then import it into WebAssembly.  Our import statement is written as follows:

(import "js" "mem" (memory 1))

The 1 indicates that the imported memory must have at least 1 page of memory (WebAssembly defines a page to be 64KB.)

So let's see a complete module that prints the string “Hi”.  In a normal compiled C program, you’d call a function to allocate some memory for the string, but since we’re just writing our own assembly here and we own the entire linear memory, we can just write the string contents into global memory using a data section.  Data sections allow a string of bytes to be written at a given offset at instantiation time and are similar to the .data sections in native executable formats.

Our final wasm module looks like this:

  (import "console" "log" (func $log (param i32 i32)))
  (import "js" "mem" (memory 1))
  (data (i32.const 0) "Hi")
  (func (export "writeHi")
    i32.const 0  ;; pass offset 0 to log
    i32.const 2  ;; pass length 2 to log
    call $log))

Note: Above, note the double semi-colon syntax (;;) for allowing comments in WebAssembly files.

Now from JavaScript we can create a Memory with 1 page and pass it in. This results in "Hi" being printed to the console:

var memory = new WebAssembly.Memory({initial:1});

var importObj = { console: { log: consoleLogString }, js: { mem: memory } };

fetchAndInstantiate('logger2.wasm', importObj).then(function(instance) {

Note: You can find the full source on GitHub as logger2.html (also see it live).

WebAssembly tables

To finish this tour of the WebAssembly text format, let’s look at the most intricate, and often confusing, part of WebAssembly: tables. Tables are basically resizable arrays of references that can be accessed by index from WebAssembly code.

To see why tables are needed, we need to first observe that the call instruction we saw earlier (see Calling functions from other functions in the same module) takes a static function index and thus can only ever call one function — but what if the callee is a runtime value?

  • In JavaScript we see this all the time: functions are first-class values.
  • In C/C++, we see this with function pointers.
  • In C++, we see this with virtual functions.

WebAssembly needed a type of call instruction to achieve this, so we gave it call_indirect, which takes a dynamic function operand. The problem is that the only types we have to give operands in WebAssembly are (currently) i32/i64/f32/f64.

WebAssembly could add an anyfunc type ("any" because the type could hold functions of any signature), but unfortunately this anyfunc type couldn’t be stored in linear memory for security reasons. Linear memory exposes the raw contents of stored values as bytes and this would allow wasm content to arbitrarily observe and corrupt raw function addresses, which is something that cannot be allowed on the web.

The solution was to store function references in a table and pass around table indices instead, which are just i32 values. call_indirect’s operand can therefore simply be an i32 index value.

Defining a table in wasm

So how do we place wasm functions in our table? Just like data sections can be used to initialize regions of linear memory with bytes, elem sections can be used to initialize regions of tables with functions:

  (table 2 anyfunc)
  (elem (i32.const 0) $f1 $f2)
  (func $f1 (result i32)
    i32.const 42)
  (func $f2 (result i32)
    i32.const 13)
  • In (table 2 anyfunc), the 2 is the initial size of the table (meaning it will store two references) and anyfunc declares that the element type of these references is "a function with any signature". In the current iteration of WebAssembly, this is the only allowed element type, but in the future, more element types will be added.
  • The functions (func) sections are just like any other declared wasm functions. These are the functions we are going to refer to in our table (for example’s sake, each one just returns a constant value). Note that the order the sections are declared in doesn’t matter here — you can declare your functions anywhere and still refer to them in your elem section.
  • The elem section can list any subset of the functions in a module, in any order, allowing duplicates. This is a list of the functions that are to be referenced by the table, in the order they are to be referenced.
  • The (i32.const 0) value inside the elem section is an offset — this needs to be declared at the start of the section, and specifies at what index in the table function references start to be populated. Here we’ve specified 0, and a size of 2 (see above), so we can fill in two references at indexes 0 and 1. If we wanted to start writing our references at offset 1, we’d have to write (i32.const 1), and the table size would have to be 3.

Note: Uninitialized elements are given a default throw-on-call value.

In JavaScript, the equivalent calls to create such a table instance would look something like this:

function() {
  // table section
  var tbl = new WebAssembly.Table({initial:2, element:"anyfunc"});

  // function sections:
  var f1 = function() { … }
  var f2 = function() { … }

  // elem section
  tbl.set(0, f1);
  tbl.set(1, f2);

Using the table

Moving on, now we’ve defined the table we need to use it somehow. Let's use this section of code to do so:

(type $return_i32 (func (result i32))) ;; if this was f32, type checking would fail
(func (export "callByIndex") (param $i i32) (result i32)
  get_local $i
  call_indirect $return_i32)
  • The (type $return_i32 (func (param i32))) block specifies a type, with a reference name. This type is used when performing type checking of the table function reference calls later on. Here we are saying that the references need to be functions that return an i32 as a result.
  • Next, we define a function that will be exported with the name callByIndex. This will take one i32 as a parameter, which is given the argument name $i.
  • Inside the function, we add one value to the stack — whatever value is passed in as the parameter $i.
  • Finally, we use call_indirect to call a function from the table — it implicitly pops the value of $i off the stack. The net result of this is that the callByIndex function invokes the $i’th function in the table.

You could also declare the call_indirect parameter explicitly during the command call instead of before it, like this:

(call_indirect $return_i32 (get_local $i))

In a higher level, more expressive language like JavaScript, you could imagine doing the same thing with an array (or probably more likely, object) containing functions. The pseudo code would look something like tbl[i]().

So, back to the typechecking. Since WebAssembly is typechecked, and anyfunc means "any function signature", we have to supply the presumed signature of the callee at the callsite, hence we include the $return_i32 type, to tell the program a function returning an i32 is expected. If the callee doesn’t have a matching signature (say an f32 is returned instead), a WebAssembly.RuntimeError is thrown.

So what links the call_indirect to the table we are calling? The answer is that there is only one table allowed right now per module instance, and that is what call_indirect is implicitly calling. In the future, when multiple tables are allowed, we would also need to specify a table identifier of some kind, along the lines of

call_indirect $my_spicy_table $i32_to_void

The full module all together looks like this, and can be found in our wasm-table.wat example file:

  (table 2 anyfunc)
  (func $f1 (result i32)
    i32.const 42)
  (func $f2 (result i32)
    i32.const 13)
  (elem (i32.const 0) $f1 $f2)
  (type $return_i32 (func (result i32)))
  (func (export "callByIndex") (param $i i32) (result i32)
    get_local $i
    call_indirect $return_i32)

We load it into a webpage using the following JavaScript:

fetchAndInstantiate('wasm-table.wasm').then(function(instance) {
  console.log(instance.exports.callByIndex(0)); // returns 42
  console.log(instance.exports.callByIndex(1)); // returns 13
  // returns an error, because there is no index position 2 in the table

Note: You can find this example on GitHub as wasm-table.html (see it live also).

Note: Just like Memory, Tables can also be created from JavaScript (see WebAssembly.Table()) as well as imported to/from another wasm module.

Mutating tables and dynamic linking

Because JavaScript has full access to function references, the Table object can be mutated from JavaScript by the grow(), get() and set() methods. When WebAssembly gets reference types, WebAssembly code will be able to mutate tables itself with get_elem/set_elem instructions.

Because tables are mutable, they can be used to implement sophisticated load-time and run-time dynamic linking schemes. When a program is dynamically linked, multiple instances share the same memory and table. This is symmetric to a native application where multiple compiled .dlls share a single process’s address space.

To see this in action, we’ll create a single import object containing a Memory object and a Table object, and pass this same import object to multiple instantiate() calls.

Our .wat examples look like so:


  (import "js" "memory" (memory 1))
  (import "js" "table" (table 1 anyfunc))
  (elem (i32.const 0) $shared0func)
  (func $shared0func (result i32)
   i32.const 0


  (import "js" "memory" (memory 1))
  (import "js" "table" (table 1 anyfunc))
  (type $void_to_i32 (func (result i32)))
  (func (export “doIt”) (result i32)
   i32.const 0
   i32.const 42  ;; store 42 at address 0
   i32.const 0
   call_indirect $void_to_i32)

These work as follows:

  1. The function shared0func is defined in shared0.wat, and stored in our imported table.
  2. This function creates a constant containing the value 0, and then uses the i32.load command to load the value contained in the provided memory index. The index provided is 0 — again, it implicitly pops the previous value off the stack. So shared0func loads and returns the value stored at memory index 0.
  3. In shared1.wat, we export a function called doIt — this fucntion creates two constants containing the values 0 and 42, then calls to store a provided value at a provided index of the imported memory. Again, it implicitly pops these values off the stack, so the result is that it stores the value 42 in memory index 0,
  4. In the last part of the function, we create a constant with value 0, then call the function at this index 0 of the table, which is shared0func, stored there earlier by the elem block in shared0.wat.
  5. When called, shared0func loads the 42 we stored in memory using the command in shared1.wat.

Note: The above expressions again pop values from the stack implicitly, but you could declare these explicitly inside the command calls instead, for example:

( (i32.const 0) (i32.const 42))
(call_indirect $void_to_i32 (i32.const 0))

After converting to assembly, we then use shared0.wasm and shared1.wasm in JavaScript via the following code:

var importObj = {
  js: {
    memory : new WebAssembly.Memory({ initial: 1 }),
    table : new WebAssembly.Table({ initial: 1, element: "anyfunc" })

  fetchAndInstantiate('shared0.wasm', importObj),
  fetchAndInstantiate('shared1.wasm', importObj)
]).then(function(results) {
  console.log(results[1].exports.doIt());  // prints 42

Each of the modules that is being compiled can import the same memory and table objects and thus share the same linear memory and table "address space".

Note: You can find this example on GitHub as shared-address-space.html (see it live also).


This finishes our high-level tour of the major components of the WebAssembly text format and how they get reflected in the WebAssembly JS API.

See also

  • The main thing that wasn’t included is a comprehensive list of all the instructions that can occur in function bodies.  See the WebAssembly semantics for a treatment of each instruction.
  • See also the grammar of the text format that is implemented by the spec interpreter.

Document Tags and Contributors

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