ARIA live regions

使用javascript,可以动态更改页面的某些部分,而无需重新加载整个页面—例如,可以动态更新搜索结果列表,或者显示不需要用户交互的警告或通知。虽然这些更改对于能够看到页面的用户来说通常是显而易见的,但是对于残疾用户来说,它们可能并不明显。ARIA Live区域填补了这个空白,并提供了一种以编程方式显现动态内容更改的方法,这种方式可以由残疾辅助技术提供提示。

Note: Assistive technologies will announce dynamic changes in the content of a live region. The live region must first be present (and usually empty), so that the browser and assistive technologies are aware of it. Any subsequent changes are then announced.

Simply including an aria-live attribute or a specialized live region role (such as role="alert") in the initial markup as it's loaded will have no effect.

Dynamically adding an element with an aria-live attribute or specialized role to the document also won't result in any announcement by assistive technologies (as, at that point, the browser/assistive technologies are not aware of the live region yet, so cannot monitor it for changes).

Always make sure that the live region is present in the document first, and only then dynamically add/change any content.

Simple live regions

Dynamic content which updates without a page reload is generally either a region or a widget. Simple content changes which are not interactive should be marked as live regions. Below is a list of each related ARIA live region property with a description.

  1. aria-live: The aria-live=POLITENESS_SETTING is used to set the priority with which screen reader should treat updates to live regions - the possible settings are: off, polite or assertive. The default setting is off. This attribute is by far the most important.
  2. aria-controls: The aria-controls=[IDLIST] is used to associate a control with the regions that it controls. Regions are identified just like an id in a div, and multiple regions can be associated with a control using a space, e.g. aria-controls="myRegionID1 myRegionsID2".

    Not known if the aria-controls aspect of live regions is implemented in current ATs, or which. Needs research.

Normally, only aria-live="polite" is used. Any region which receives updates that are important for the user to receive, but not so rapid as to be annoying, should receive this attribute. The screen reader will speak changes whenever the user is idle.

For regions which are not important, or would be annoying because of rapid updates or other reasons, silence them with aria-live="off".

A website specializing in providing information about planets provides a dropdown box. When a planet is selected from the dropdown, a region on the page is updated with information about the selected planet.

HTML

<fieldset>
  <legend>Planet information</legend>
  <label for="planetsSelect">Planet:</label>
  <select id="planetsSelect" aria-controls="planetInfo">
    <option value="">Select a planet&hellip;</option>
    <option value="mercury">Mercury</option>
    <option value="venus">Venus</option>
    <option value="earth">Earth</option>
    <option value="mars">Mars</option>
  </select>
  <button id="renderPlanetInfoButton">Go</button>
</fieldset>

<div role="region" id="planetInfo" aria-live="polite">
  <h2 id="planetTitle">No planet selected</h2>
  <p id="planetDescription">Select a planet to view its description</p>
</div>

<p><small>Information courtesy <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_System#Inner_Solar_System">Wikipedia</a></small></p>

JavaScript

const PLANETS_INFO = {
  mercury: {
    title: 'Mercury',
    description: 'Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger to the gods.'
  },

  venus: {
    title: "Venus",
    description: 'Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty.'
  },
  
  earth: {
    title: "Earth",
    description: 'Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life.'
  },
  
  mars: {
    title: "Mars",
    description: 'Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet".'
  }
};

function renderPlanetInfo(planet) {
  const planetTitle = document.querySelector('#planetTitle');
  const planetDescription = document.querySelector('#planetDescription');
  
  if (planet in PLANETS_INFO) {
    planetTitle.textContent = PLANETS_INFO[planet].title;
    planetDescription.textContent = PLANETS_INFO[planet].description;
  } else {
    planetTitle.textContent = 'No planet selected';
    planetDescription.textContent = 'Select a planet to view its description';
  }
}

const renderPlanetInfoButton = document.querySelector('#renderPlanetInfoButton');

renderPlanetInfoButton.addEventListener('click', event => {
  const planetsSelect = document.querySelector('#planetsSelect');
  const selectedPlanet = planetsSelect.options[planetsSelect.selectedIndex].value;

  renderPlanetInfo(selectedPlanet);
});

As the user selects a new planet, the information in the live region will be announced. Because the live region has aria-live="polite", the screen reader will wait until the user pauses before announcing the update. Thus, moving down in the list and selecting another planet will not announce updates in the live region. Updates in the live region will only be announced for the planet finally chosen.

Here is a screenshot of VoiceOver on Mac announcing the update (via subtitles) to the live region:

A screenshot of VoiceOver on Mac announcing the update to a live region. Subtitles are shown in the picture.

Preferring specialized live region roles

In the following well-known predefined cases it is better to use a specific provided "live region role":

Role Description Compatibility Notes
log Chat, error, game or other type of log To maximize compatibility, add a redundant aria-live="polite" when using this role.
status A status bar or area of the screen that provides an updated status of some kind. Screen reader users have a special command to read the current status. To maximize compatibility, add a redundant aria-live="polite" when using this role.
alert Error or warning message that flashes on the screen. Alerts are particularly important for client side validation notices to users. (TBD: link to ARIA form tutorial with aria info) To maximize compatibility, some people recommend adding a redundant aria-live="assertive" when using this role. However, adding both aria-live and role="alert" causes double speaking issues in VoiceOver on iOS.
progressbar A hybrid between a widget and a live region. Use this with aria-valuemin, aria-valuenow and aria-valuemax. (TBD: add more info here).
marquee for text which scrolls, such as a stock ticker.
timer or any kind of timer or clock, such as a countdown timer or stopwatch readout.

Advanced live regions

(TBD: more granular information on the support of the individual attributes with combinations of OS/Browser/AT).

General support for Live Regions was added to JAWS on version 10.0. In Windows Eyes supports Live Regions since version 8.0 "for use outside of Browse Mode for Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox". NVDA added some basic support for Live Regions for Mozilla Firefox back in 2008 and was improved in 2010 and 2014. In 2015, basic support was also added for Internet Explorer (MSHTML).

The Paciello Group has some information about the state of the support of Live Regions (2014). Paul J. Adam has researched the support of Aria-Atomic and Aria-Relevant in particular. 

  1. aria-atomic: The aria-atomic=BOOLEAN is used to set whether or not the screen reader should always present the live region as a whole, even if only part of the region changes. The possible settings are: false or true. The default setting is false.
  2. aria-relevant: The aria-relevant=[LIST_OF_CHANGES] is used to set what types of changes are relevant to a live region. The possible settings are one or more of: additions, removalstext, all. The default setting is: additions text.
  3. aria-labelledby: The aria-labelledby=[IDLIST] is used to associate a region with its labels, similar to aria-controls but instead associating labels to the region. and label identifiers are separated with a space.
  4. aria-describedby: The aria-describedby=[IDLIST] is used to associate a region with its descriptions, similar to aria-controls but instead associating descriptions to the region and description identifiers are separated with a space.

Advanced use case: Clock

As an illustration of aria-atomic, consider a site with a simple clock, showing hours and minutes. The clock is updated each minute, with the new remaining time simply overwriting the current content.

<div id="clock" role="timer" aria-live="polite"></div>
/* basic JavaScript to update the clock */

setInterval(function() {
  var now = new Date();
  document.getElementById('clock').innerHTML = "Time: " + now.getHours() + ":" + ("0"+now.getMinutes()).substr(-2);
}, 60000);

The first time the function executes, the entirety of the string that is added will be announced. On subsequent calls, only the parts of the content that changed compared to the previous content will be announced. For instance, when the clock changes from "17:33" to "17:34", assistive technologies will only announce "4", which won't be very useful to users.

One way around this would be to first clear the contents of the live region, and then inject the new content. However, this can sometimes be unreliable, as it's dependent on the exact timing of these two updates.

aria-atomic="true" ensures that each time the live region is updated, the entirety of the content is announced in full (e.g. "Time: 17:34").

<div id="clock" role="timer" aria-live="polite" aria-atomic="true"></div>

Note: As observed, setting/updating the innerHTML again would cause the whole text to be read again, whether or not you set aria-atomic="true", so the above Clock example does not work as expected.

A working example of a simple year control for better understanding:

<div id="date-input">
  <label>Year:
    <input type="text" id="year" value="1990" onblur="change(event)"/>
  </label>
</div>

<div id="date-output" aria-live="polite">
  The set year is:
  <span id="year-output">1990</span>
</div>

function change(event) {
  var yearOut = document.getElementById("year-output");
  switch (event.target.id) {
    case "year":
      yearOut.innerHTML = event.target.value;
      break;
   default:
      return;
  }
};

Without aria-atomic="true" the screenreader announces only the changed value of year.

With aria-atomic-="true", the screenreader announces "The set year is: changedvalue"

Advanced use case: Roster

A chat site would like to display a list of users currently logged in. Display a list of users where a user's log-in and log-out status will be reflected dynamically (without a page reload).

<ul id="roster" aria-live="polite" aria-relevant="additions removals">
	<!-- use JavaScript to add remove users here-->
</ul>

Breakdown of ARIA live properties:

  • aria-live="polite" indicates that the screen reader should wait until the user is idle before presenting updates to the user. This is the most commonly used value, as interrupting the user with "assertive" might interrupt their flow.
  • aria-atomic is not set (false by default) so that only the added or removed users should be spoken and not the entire roster each time.
  • aria-relevant="additions removals" ensures that both users added or removed to the roster will be spoken.

See also