CSSStyleSheet: CSSStyleSheet() constructor

Baseline 2023

Newly available

Since March 2023, this feature works across the latest devices and browser versions. This feature might not work in older devices or browsers.

The CSSStyleSheet() constructor creates a new CSSStyleSheet object which represents a single Stylesheet.

After constructing a stylesheet the CSSStyleSheet.replace(), CSSStyleSheet.replaceSync(), CSSStyleSheet.insertRule(), and CSSStyleSheet.deleteRule() methods can be used to modify the rules of the new stylesheet.

A stylesheet created using this method is referred to as a "constructed stylesheet". A constructed stylesheet can be shared between a document and its shadow DOM subtrees using ShadowRoot.adoptedStyleSheets and Document.adoptedStyleSheets.


new CSSStyleSheet()
new CSSStyleSheet(options)


options Optional

An object containing the following:

baseURL Optional

A string containing the baseURL used to resolve relative URLs in the stylesheet.

media Optional

A MediaList containing a list of media rules, or a string containing a single rule.

disabled Optional

A Boolean indicating whether the stylesheet is disabled. False by default.


In the following example, a new CSSStyleSheet is constructed with a media rule of "print". Printing StyleSheet.media to the console returns a MediaList with a single entry for this print rule.

let stylesheet = new CSSStyleSheet({ media: "print" });

Sharing stylesheets with a shadow DOM

The code below shows the sheet being constructed and then CSSStyleSheet.replaceSync() is called to add a rule to the sheet.

// Create an empty "constructed" stylesheet
const sheet = new CSSStyleSheet();
// Apply a rule to the sheet
sheet.replaceSync("a { color: red; }");

We then create a ShadowRoot and pass the sheet object to the ShadowRoot.adoptedStyleSheets property inside an array.

// Create an element in the document and then create a shadow root:
const node = document.createElement("div");
const shadow = node.attachShadow({ mode: "open" });

//Adopt the sheet into the shadow DOM
shadow.adoptedStyleSheets = [sheet];

We can modify the stylesheets after they have been added to the array. Below we append a new rule to the same sheet using CSSStyleSheet.insertRule().

sheet.insertRule("* { background-color: blue; }");
// The document will now have blue background.

The same sheet can be shared with multiple shadow subtrees in the same document. For more examples see ShadowRoot.adoptedStyleSheets.


CSS Object Model (CSSOM)
# dom-cssstylesheet-cssstylesheet

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also