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Document 接口代表在浏览器及服务器中加载任意 web 页面,也作为 web 页面内容(DOM tree, 包含如 <body><table> 等 element)的入口。其也为文档(document)提供了全局性的函数,例如获取页面的URL、在文档中创建新的 element 的函数。

 

Document 接口描述了支持所有文档类型的属性和方法。根据文档的类型(如 HTMLXML、SVG等等 ),对文档对象操作的API也会不一样:HTML 文档(text/html 类型的内容)实现了 HTMLDocument 接口,而SVG 文档实现了 SVGDocument 接口。

属性

 Document 接口也继承自  Node 及 EventTarget 接口。

Document.all
通过id可对所有元素进行访问。 这是一个遗留的非标准接口,可以使用  Document.getElementById() 方法来替代。
Document.async 
与  document.load 一起使用,表示一个异步请求。
Document.characterSet 只读
返回文档使用的字符集。
Document.charset 只读
Document.characterSet的别名。使用本属性代替别名。
Document.compatMode 只读
表示是在 Quirks 模式还是在 Strict 模式下渲染文档的。
Document.contentType 只读  
从当前文档的 MIME 首部返回 Content-Type。
Document.doctype 只读
返回当前文档的 Document Type Definition (DTD)。
Document.documentElement 只读
返回 document 的直属后代元素。对于 HTML 文档来说,返回的一般是 HTML 元素。
Document.documentURI 只读
返回文档的 URL。
Document.domConfig
会返回一个 DOMConfiguration 对象。
Document.hidden 只读
Document.implementation 只读
返回与当前文档相关联的 DOM implementation。
Document.inputEncoding 只读
Document.characterSet 的别名。使用本属性替代 Document.characterSet
Document.lastStyleSheetSet 只读
返回样式表集最后使用的名称。其初始值为 null,直到设置 selectedStyleSheetSet 的值改变这些样式表。
Document.mozSyntheticDocument
当 document 是人造(synthetic)时,如一个独立的图像,视频,音频文件等,值为 true
Document.mozFullScreen
当 document 处于 full-screen mode 时,其值为 true。
Document.mozFullScreenElement 只读
当前 document 处于全屏模式下的元素。
Document.mozFullScreenEnabled 只读
假如在当前 document 调用 element.mozRequestFullscreen() 成功,其值为 true。
Document.pointerLockElement 只读
当指针被锁定时,返回元素集合,作为鼠标事件的目标。 如果锁被挂起,或指针解锁,或者目标是在另一个 document,则为 null。
Document.preferredStyleSheetSet 只读
返回网页设计人员所指定的首选样式表集。
Document.scrollingElement 只读
返回滚动 document 的 Element 的一个引用。 Element that scrolls the document.
Document.selectedStyleSheetSet
返回当前正在使用的样式表集。
Document.styleSheets 只读
返回当前 document 的样式表对象的列表。
Document.styleSheetSets 只读
返回当前 docuemtn 可用的样式表集的列表。
Document.timeline 只读
Document.undoManager 只读
Document.URL 只读
返回...
Document.visibilityState 只读
Document.xmlEncoding
返回 XML 声明所确定的编码。
Document.xmlStandalone 已废弃 Gecko 10.0
返回 true,如果 XML 声明指定该 docuemrnt 是独立的(例如,document 的内容会受到一个 DTD 外部影响 ),否则为 false
Document.xmlVersion 已废弃 Gecko 10.0
返回指定 XML 声明的版本号,如果不存在版本号,则返回"1.0"

Document 接口是 ParentNode 接口的扩展:

ParentNode.children Read only
Returns a live HTMLCollection containing all objects of type Element that are children of this ParentNode.
ParentNode.firstElementChild Read only
Returns the Element that is the first child of this ParentNode, or null if there is none.
ParentNode.lastElementChild Read only
Returns the Element that is the last child of this ParentNode, or null if there is none.
ParentNode.childElementCount Read only
Returns an unsigned long giving the amount of children that the object has.

扩展的HTML文档

HTML文档的 Document 接口继承自 HTMLDocument 接口或者说从 HTML5 之后扩展了下面这些文档:

Document.activeElement 只读
Returns the currently focused element.
Document.alinkColor
Returns or sets the color of active links in the document body.
Document.anchors
Returns a list of all of the anchors in the document.
Document.applets
Returns an ordered list of the applets within a document.
Document.bgColor
Gets/sets the background color of the current document.
Document.body
Returns the <body> element of the current document.
Document.cookie
Returns a semicolon-separated list of the cookies for that document or sets a single cookie.
Document.defaultView 只读
Returns a reference to the window object.
Document.designMode
Gets/sets the ability to edit the whole document.
Document.dir 只读
Gets/sets directionality (rtl/ltr) of the document.
Document.domain 只读
Returns the domain of the current document.
Document.embeds 只读
Returns a list of the embedded <embed> elements within the current document.
Document.fgColor
Gets/sets the foreground color, or text color, of the current document.
Document.forms 只读
Returns a list of the <form> elements within the current document.
Document.head 只读
Returns the <head> element of the current document.
Document.height
Gets/sets the height of the current document.
Document.images 只读
Returns a list of the images in the current document.
Document.lastModified 只读
Returns the date on which the document was last modified.
Document.linkColor
Gets/sets the color of hyperlinks in the document.
Document.links 只读
Returns a list of all the hyperlinks in the document.
Document.location 只读
Returns the URI of the current document.
Document.plugins 只读
Returns a list of the available plugins.
Document.readyState 只读
Returns loading status of the document.
Document.referrer 只读
Returns the URI of the page that linked to this page.
Document.scripts 只读
Returns all the <script> elements on the document.
Document.title 只读
Returns the title of the current document.
Document.URL 只读
Returns a string containing the URL of the current document.
Document.vlinkColor
Gets/sets the color of visited hyperlinks.
Document.width
Returns the width of the current document.

事件句柄

Document.onpointerlockchange
Returns the event handling code for the pointerlockchange event.
Document.onpointerlockerror
Returns the event handling code for the pointerlockerror event.
Document.onreadystatechange
Returns the event handling code for the readystatechange event.

方法

Note: The Document interface also inherit from the Node and EventTarget interfaces.

Document.adoptNode(Node node)
Adopt node from an external document.
Document.captureEvents(String eventName)
See window.captureEvents.
Document.caretPositionFromPoint(Number x, Number y)
Gets a CaretPosition based on two coordinates.
Document.createAttribute(String name)
Creates a new Attr object and returns it.
Document.createAttributeNS(String namespace, String name)
Creates a new attribute node in a given namespace and returns it.
Document.createCDATASection(String data)
Creates a new CDATA node and returns it.
Document.createComment(String comment)
Creates a new comment node and returns it.
Document.createDocumentFragment()
Creates a new document fragment.
Document.createElement(String name)
Creates a new element with the given tag name.
Document.createElementNS(String namespace, String name)
Creates a new element with the given tag name and namespace URI.
Document.createEntityReference(String name)
Creates a new entity reference object and returns it.
Document.createEvent(String interface)
Creates an event object.
Document.createNodeIterator(Node root[, Number whatToShow[, NodeFilter filter]])
Creates a NodeIterator object.
Document.createProcessingInstruction(String target, String data)
Creates a new ProcessingInstruction object.
Document.createRange()
Creates a Range object.
Document.createTextNode(String text)
Creates a text node.
Document.createTreeWalker(Node root[, Number whatToShow[, NodeFilter filter]])
Creates a TreeWalker object.
Document.elementFromPoint(Number x, Number y)
Returns the element visible at the specified coordinates.
Document.enableStyleSheetsForSet(String name)
Enables the style sheets for the specified style sheet set.
Document.exitPointerLock()
Release the pointer lock.
Document.getElementsByClassName(String className)
Returns a list of elements with the given class name.
Document.getElementsByTagName(String tagName)
Returns a list of elements with the given tag name.
Document.getElementsByTagNameNS(String namespace, String tagName)
Returns a list of elements with the given tag name and namespace.
Document.importNode(Node node, Boolean deep)
Returns a clone of a node from an external document.
Document.normalizeDocument()
Replaces entities, normalizes text nodes, etc.
Document.releaseCapture()
Releases the current mouse capture if it's on an element in this document.
Document.releaseEvents
See window.releaseEvents.
document.routeEvent 已废弃 Gecko 24
See window.routeEvent.
document.mozSetImageElement
Allows you to change the element being used as the background image for a specified element ID.

The Document interface is extended with the ParentNode interface:

Document.getElementById(String id)
Returns an object reference to the identified element.
Document.querySelector(String selector)
Returns the first Element node within the document, in document order, that matches the specified selectors.
Document.querySelectorAll(String selector)
Returns a list of all the Element nodes within the document that match the specified selectors.

The Document interface is extended with the XPathEvaluator interface:

Document.createExpression(String expression, XPathNSResolver resolver)
Compiles an XPathExpression which can then be used for (repeated) evaluations.
Document.createNSResolver(Node resolver)
Creates an XPathNSResolver object.
Document.evaluate(String expression, Node contextNode, XPathNSResolver resolver, Number type, Object result)
Evaluates an XPath expression.

扩展的HTML文档

HTML文档的 Document 接口继承自 HTMLDocument 接口或者说从 HTML5 之后扩展了下面这些文档:

Document.clear()
In majority of modern browsers, including recent versions of Firefox and Internet Explorer, this method does nothing.
Document.close()
Closes a document stream for writing.
Document.execCommand(String command[, Boolean showUI[, String value]])
On an editable document, executes a formating command.
Document.getElementsByName(String name)
Returns a list of elements with the given name.
Document.getSelection()
Returns a Selection object related to text selected in the document.
Document.hasFocus()
Returns true if the focus is currently located anywhere inside the specified document.
Document.open()
Opens a document stream for writing.
Document.queryCommandEnabled(String command)
Returns true if the formating command can be executed on the current range.
Document.queryCommandIndeterm(String command)
Returns true if the formating command is in an indeterminate state on the current range.
Document.queryCommandState(String command)
Returns true if the formating command has been executed on the current range.
Document.queryCommandSupported(String command)
Returns true if the formating command is supported on the current range.
Document.queryCommandValue(String command)
Returns the current value of the current range for a formating command.
Document.write(String text)
Writes text to a document.
Document.writeln(String text)
Writes a line of text to a document.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification
Document
Recommendation Initial definition for the interface
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification
Document
Recommendation Supersede DOM 1
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification
Document
Recommendation Supersede DOM 2
DOM
Document
Living Standard Intend to supersede DOM 3
WHATWG HTML Living Standard
Document
Living Standard Turn the HTMLDocument interface into a Documentextension.
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 XPath Specification
XPathEvaluator
Recommendation Define the XPathEvaluator interface which extendDocument.
HTML Editing APIs
Document
Editor's Draft Extend the Documentinterface
CSS Object Model (CSSOM) View Module
Document
Working Draft Extend the Documentinterface
CSS Object Model (CSSOM)
Document
Working Draft Extend the Documentinterface
Pointer Lock
Document
Candidate Recommendation Extend the Documentinterface

Browser compatibility

Firefox notes

Mozilla define a set of non-standard properties made only for XUL content:

document.currentScript
Returns the <script> element that is currently executing.
document.documentURIObject
(Mozilla add-ons only!) Returns the nsIURI object representing the URI of the document. This property only has special meaning in privileged JavaScript code (with UniversalXPConnect privileges).
document.popupNode
Returns the node upon which a popup was invoked.
document.tooltipNode
Returns the node which is the target of the current tooltip.

Mozilla also define some non-standard methods:

Document.execCommandShowHelp 已废弃 Gecko 14.0
This method never did anything and always threw an exception, so it was removed in Gecko 14.0 (Firefox 14.0 / Thunderbird 14.0 / SeaMonkey 2.11).
Document.getBoxObjectFor
Use the Element.getBoundingClientRect() method instead.
Document.loadOverlay
Loads a XUL overlay dynamically. This only works in XUL documents.
document.queryCommandText 已废弃 Gecko 14.0
This method never did anything but throw an exception, and was removed in Gecko 14.0 (Firefox 14.0 / Thunderbird 14.0 / SeaMonkey 2.11).

Internet Explorer notes

Microsoft defines some non-standard properties:

document.fileSize*
Returns size in bytes of the document. Starting with Internet Explorer 11, that property is no longer supported. See MSDN.
Internet Explorer does not support all methods from the Node interface in the Documentinterface:
document.contains
As a work-around, document.body.contains() can be used.

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