Baseline 2022

Newly available

Since June 2022, this feature works across the latest devices and browser versions. This feature might not work in older devices or browsers.

Note: This feature is available in Web Workers.

The WritableStream interface of the Streams API provides a standard abstraction for writing streaming data to a destination, known as a sink. This object comes with built-in backpressure and queuing.

WritableStream is a transferable object.



Creates a new WritableStream object.

Instance properties

WritableStream.locked Read only

A boolean indicating whether the WritableStream is locked to a writer.

Instance methods


Aborts the stream, signaling that the producer can no longer successfully write to the stream and it is to be immediately moved to an error state, with any queued writes discarded.


Closes the stream.


Returns a new instance of WritableStreamDefaultWriter and locks the stream to that instance. While the stream is locked, no other writer can be acquired until this one is released.


The following example illustrates several features of this interface. It shows the creation of the WritableStream with a custom sink and an API-supplied queueing strategy. It then calls a function called sendMessage(), passing the newly created stream and a string. Inside this function it calls the stream's getWriter() method, which returns an instance of WritableStreamDefaultWriter. A forEach() call is used to write each chunk of the string to the stream. Finally, write() and close() return promises that are processed to deal with success or failure of chunks and streams.

const list = document.querySelector("ul");

function sendMessage(message, writableStream) {
  // defaultWriter is of type WritableStreamDefaultWriter
  const defaultWriter = writableStream.getWriter();
  const encoder = new TextEncoder();
  const encoded = encoder.encode(message);
  encoded.forEach((chunk) => {
      .then(() => defaultWriter.write(chunk))
      .then(() => {
        console.log("Chunk written to sink.");
      .catch((err) => {
        console.log("Chunk error:", err);
  // Call ready again to ensure that all chunks are written
  //   before closing the writer.
    .then(() => {
    .then(() => {
      console.log("All chunks written");
    .catch((err) => {
      console.log("Stream error:", err);

const decoder = new TextDecoder("utf-8");
const queuingStrategy = new CountQueuingStrategy({ highWaterMark: 1 });
let result = "";
const writableStream = new WritableStream(
    // Implement the sink
    write(chunk) {
      return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
        const buffer = new ArrayBuffer(1);
        const view = new Uint8Array(buffer);
        view[0] = chunk;
        const decoded = decoder.decode(view, { stream: true });
        const listItem = document.createElement("li");
        listItem.textContent = `Chunk decoded: ${decoded}`;
        result += decoded;
    close() {
      const listItem = document.createElement("li");
      listItem.textContent = `[MESSAGE RECEIVED] ${result}`;
    abort(err) {
      console.log("Sink error:", err);

sendMessage("Hello, world.", writableStream);

You can find the full code in our Simple writer example.


Because of how backpressure is supported in the API, its implementation in code may be less than obvious. To see how backpressure is implemented look for three things:

  • The highWaterMark property, which is set when creating the counting strategy using new CountQueuingStrategy, sets the maximum amount of data that the WritableStream instance will handle in a single write() operation. In this example, it's the maximum amount of data that can be sent to defaultWriter.write(), in the sendMessage function.
  • The defaultWriter.ready property returns a promise that resolves when the sink (the first property of the WritableStream constructor) is done writing data. The data source can either write more data using defaultWriter.write() or call defaultWriter.close(), as demonstrated in the example above. Calling close() too early can prevent data from being written. This is why the example calls defaultWriter.ready twice.
  • The Promise returned by the sink's write() method tells the WritableStream and its writer when to resolve defaultWriter.ready.


Streams Standard
# ws-class

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also