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Ao escrever JavaScript no lado do cliente para sites ou aplicativos, você não vai muito longe antes de começar a usar APIs - interfaces para manipular diferentes aspectos do navegador e do sistema operacional em que o site está sendo executado, ou mesmo dados de outros sites ou serviços. Neste módulo, exploraremos quais APIs são, e como usar algumas das APIs mais comuns que você encontrará, muitas vezes em seu trabalho de desenvolvimento.


Para tirar o máximo proveito deste módulo, você deveria ter trabalhado o caminho pelos módulos de JavaScript anteriores da série (First steps, Building blocks, e JavaScript objects). Esses módulos envolvem bastante uso de API simples de qualquer maneira, pois é difícil escrever exemplos de JavaScript do lado do cliente que façam algo útil sem eles! Aqui, subimos um nível, assumindo o conhecimento da linguagem core JavaScript e explorando as APIs comuns da Web com um pouco mais de detalhes.

Basic knowledge of HTML and CSS would also be useful.

Note: If you are working on a device where you don't have the ability to create your own files, you could try out (most of) the code examples in an online coding program such as JSBin or Thimble.


Introduction to web APIs
First up, we'll start by looking at APIs from a high level — what are they, how do they work, how do you use them in your code, and how are they structured? We'll also take a look at what the different main classes of APIs are, and what kind of uses they have.
Manipulating documents
When writing web pages and apps, one of the most common things you'll want to do is manipulate web documents in some way. This is usually done by using the Document Object Model (DOM), a set of APIs for controlling HTML and styling information that makes heavy use of the Document object. In this article, we'll look at how to use the DOM in detail, along with some other interesting APIs that can alter your environment in interesting ways.
Fetching data from the server
Another very common task in modern websites and applications is retrieving individual data items from the server to update sections of a webpage without having to load an entirely new page. This seemingly small detail has had a huge impact on the performance and behavior of sites, so in this article, we'll explain the concept, and look at technologies that make it possible, such as XMLHttpRequest and the Fetch API.
Third party APIs
The APIs we've covered so far are built into the browser, but not all APIs are. Many large websites and services such as Google Maps, Twitter, Facebook, PayPal, etc. provide APIs allowing developers to make use of their data (e.g. displaying your twitter stream on your blog) or services (e.g. displaying custom Google Maps on your site, or using Facebook login to log in your users). This article looks at the difference between browser APIs and 3rd party APIs and shows some typical uses of the latter.
Drawing graphics
The browser contains some very powerful graphics programming tools, from the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) language, to APIs for drawing on HTML <canvas> elements, (see The Canvas API and WebGL). Ths article provides an introduction to the Canvas API, and further resources to allow you to learn more.
Video and audio APIs
HTML5 comes with elements for embedding rich media in documents — <video> and <audio> — which in turn come with their own APIs for controlling playback, seeking, etc. This article shows you how to do common tasks such as creating custom playback controls.
Client-side storage
Modern web browsers feature a number of different technologies that allow you to store data related to web sites and retrieve it when necessary allowing you to persist data long term, save sites offline, and more. This article explains the very basics of how these work.

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